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Ghana

Tecnología e innovación (GH0027)

Visión General

De un vistazo

Plan de ACCION: Plan de acción de Ghana 2017-2019

Ciclo del plan de acción: 2017

Estado: inactivo

Instituciones

Institución principal: Ministerio de Comunicación, Ministerio de Información, NITA, PRAD y MOF.

Instituciones de apoyo: todos los MDA y MMDA; Agencia de Noticias de Ghana, Asociación de Periodistas de Ghana y Penplusbytes

Áreas de política

Acceso a la información, Creación de capacidades, Gobierno Electrónico, Datos Abiertos, Gestión de Registros

Revisión de IRM

Informe de IRM: Informe de implementación de Ghana 2017-2019, Informe de diseño de Ghana 2017-2019

Estrellado: No

Resultados tempranos: marginal

Diseño i

Verificable: sí

Relevante para los valores de OGP: acceso a la información, tecnología

Impacto potencial:

Implementación i

Terminación:

Descripción del producto

¿Cuál es el problema público que abordará el compromiso ?: Muchas instituciones públicas no tienen una infraestructura adecuada (incluida la conectividad a Internet e intranet), personal y logística para administrar la información de manera eficiente y efectiva. Existe la necesidad de mejorar la gestión de los registros públicos proporcionando un marco para que todas las instituciones públicas gestionen la información de modo que puedan proporcionar información de manera eficiente cuando se aprueba la ley de RTI .; ¿Cuál es el compromiso ?: El compromiso es mejorar la administración de registros al proporcionar un marco para que todas las instituciones públicas administren información para que puedan proporcionar información de manera eficiente cuando se aprueba la ley de RTI .; ¿Cómo contribuirá el compromiso a resolver el problema público ?: El compromiso es mejorar la infraestructura para garantizar la gestión adecuada de la información (registro, almacenamiento y recuperación) en todas las instituciones públicas para que el público acceda fácilmente a la información .; ¿Por qué es este compromiso relevante para los valores de OGP ?: El compromiso es utilizar la tecnología y la innovación para mejorar la calidad y la accesibilidad de la información al público.

Resumen de estado intermedio de IRM

8. Technology and Innovation

Lenguaje del compromiso tal como aparece en el plan de acción:

‘Government commits to improve records management by providing a framework for all public institutions to manage information so that they can efficiently provide information when the RTI law is passed. The Ghana Open Data Policy is currently not finalized. In addition, there is the need to improve information flow both internally (within public institutions) and externally (to the public) to bring about transparency and accountability. Not all the MDAs and MMDAs have the necessary infrastructure (including internet and intranet connectivity), personnel, and logistics to improve information management. National Information and Technology Agency (NITA) and Public Records and Archive Division (PRAAD) will work together to improve the infrastructure for ensuring proper management of information (recording, storage and retrieval) in all public institutions.’

Hitos / Actividades:

  • Ministry of Communication (MOC), Ministry of Information (MOI) and NITA to finalize Ghana Open Data Policy by November 2018;
  • NITA and PRAAD to improve connectivity (internet and intranet) facilities for MDAs and MMDAs by August 2019;
  • PRAAD and NITA to expand the digitization of data in all MDAs to improve records management by August 2019;
  • MDAs and MMDAs to expand automation of services by August 2019;
  • NITA and PRAAD to support all MDAs and MMDAs have functional websites with periodic and frequent updates by March 2019;
  • MoF to support Data Protection Agency to work effectively by November 2018; and,
  • NITA to support Parliament to come out with a framework to provide feedback to citizens by December 2018

Fecha de inicio: noviembre 2017

Fecha de finalización: marzo 2019

El plan de acción está disponible en este enlace

Resumen del compromiso

Verificabilidad

Relevancia de valor de OGP (como está escrito)

Impacto potencial

Terminación

¿Abrió el gobierno?

No lo suficientemente específico como para ser verificable

Suficientemente específico para ser verificable

Acceso a la información

Participación cívica

Responsabilidad pública

Tecnología e innovación para la transparencia y la responsabilidad

- None -

Clasificacion "Minor"

Moderado

Transformador

No empezado

limitados

Sustancial

Completado

Empeorado

No cambio

Marginal

Clasificacion Mayor

Excepcional

8. En general

Evaluado al final del ciclo del plan de acción.

Evaluado al final del ciclo del plan de acción.

Contexto y objetivos

Ghana was one of the pioneers in Africa of the Open Data Initiative, [73] a process the National Information Technology Agency (NITA) began in 2012 with the aim of improving the digital management of public information in Ghana to facilitate access by and feedback from citizens. [74] The Initiative, which comprises the creation of an open data community and an open data portal, [75] followed an open data readiness assessment in 2010 by the Web Foundation. [76] The study found that there was sufficient political will at the executive level but that there was no clear legal framework. At the public administration level, the study found keen interest and “significant information” available in digital format but only available to citizens in hard copy. The study identified civil society’s role in advocating for the passage of the RTI Bill and some understanding of how an open data initiative could facilitate its implementation. Recommendations included the passage of the RTI Bill and establishment of its institutional mechanisms, the provision of budgetary and leadership support to NITA, improvement of the capacity of public servants to become active consumers of information and enabling of inter-agency data sharing, and the building of knowledge and technical awareness, including through trainings. [77]

As at August 2018, the portal held 155 datasets from 25 government agencies (it has since expanded) [78] and no publicly available information on public access to and usage of this data. Though this is not listed among proposed activities, as discussed in the End-of-Term assessment report and as remarked on in the three feedback comments on the website, [79] data on the portal need to be current to sustain their relevance and ensure that they serve their purpose. As described in the NAP 2017–2019, the open data infrastructure in many Ghanaian parastatals is poor. This has had a negative effect on public records management and access to information by the public. The multifaceted baseline of this commitment comprises the underutilized potential for efficient digital public data management in Ghana as indicated by capacity and logistical challenges among government officials, loose regulatory frameworks, and limited available data on the national open data website. A study of the preservation of public records in Ghana as of 2002 revealed that lack of training, awareness, and use of records by both staff and customers were among the main challenges to ensuring effective preservation of public records. [80]

On the whole, the commitment is relevant and verifiable, although the verifiability of some of the milestones needs to be improved to include measurable activities and targets.

In this light, this commitment’s goals are pertinent. Finalizing Ghana’s Open Data policy could help establish a guiding framework that clearly sets out targets and key actors and identifies resources to support the open data agenda, although specific details on what the final outcomes of the policy will be, as written in the commitment, remain unknown. It could also reinforce and provide momentum for the RTI Bill, making it relevant to access to information. Improving public feedback mechanisms on open data deepens this commitment’s relevance to this OGP value. The other milestones all aim to improve digital facilities, data management, and digital capacities of government structures, making the commitment also relevant to the OGP value of technology and innovation.

The commitment is verifiable. Its potential impact on the current state of public digital data management in Ghana is rated as moderate for the following reasons. This commitment focuses on equipment and facilities whereas, as discussed previously under the RTI commitment, some officials’ reluctance to share public data with citizens has obstructed citizen access to information. Also, it focuses heavily on strengthening the government’s capacities to manage data without consideration for digital literacy levels among the citizenry that is the targeted end user of this information. In a similar vein, the milestones of supporting the Data Protection Agency and developing a framework to provide feedback to citizens do not reveal in what ways the agency requires operational improvement or specify what kind of feedback is envisaged.

Going forward, the recommendations proposed below could help make open data objectives more systematic and tangible.

Próximos pasos

This is an important commitment that deserves every support to enable it to succeed. However, the NAP could provide further clarifications on each activity to facilitate successful implementation. It covers an important policy area and could be carried over in future action plans.

  • For activities that involve enhancing capacity, specify existing capabilities and state working targets to make it easy to measure achievement.
  • Adopt more holistic approaches to improving digital public data management that target officials’ knowledge and attitudes in addition to their technical capacities and digital facilities. Plan intensive sensitization on the importance of open data for good governance.
  • Specify the features of a functional website.
  • It is recommended to include specific targets and monitoring mechanisms within the activities along with the means through which the activities will be achieved, which will improve the commitment’s design.
  • To accommodate citizens who lack internet access and literacy, the government should consider partnering with expert Ghanaian CSOs to enhance the capacity of these citizens. It should also innovate alternative ways to communicate the data featured on the Open Data Portal to broaden access. This could include the use of local language applications given that mobile usage is increasing rapidly in urban and rural areas.
  • It would be useful for the government to devise a means of monitoring public usage of its data initiatives to assess how well it is achieving its open data goals and position itself to respond to users’ experiences.
[73] “MEST attends Ghana Open Data Portal Development Stakeholders’ Dialogue,” 6 August 2018, https://meltwater.org/mest-attends-ghana-open-data-development-stakeholders-dialogue/
[74] Ghana News Agency, ‘GODI and CSOs Hold Meeting on Ghana Open Data Portal’, 19 April 2014, http://www.ghana.gov.gh/index.php/media-center/news/486-godi-and-csos-hold-meeting-on-ghana-open-data-portal
[77] Open Government Data Feasiblity Study, 2011, pages 3-6.
[80] Harry Akussah, “Preservation of Public Records in Ghana: the training, education and awareness factors,” Citeseerx, http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.881.6143&rep=rep1&type=pdf

Resumen de estado de fin de período de IRM

8. Technology and Innovation

Texto de compromiso: Government commits to improve records management by providing a framework for all public institutions to manage information so that they can efficiently provide information when the RTI law is passed. The Ghana Open Data Policy is currently not finalized. In addition, there is the need to improve information flow both internally (within public institutions) and externally (to the public) to bring about transparency and accountability. Not all the MDAs and MMDAs have the necessary infrastructure (including internet and intranet connectivity), personnel, and logistics to improve information management. National Information and Technology Agency (NITA) and Public Records and Archive Division (PRAAD) will work together to improve the infrastructure for ensuring proper management of information (recording, storage and retrieval) in all public institutions.

Hitos / Actividades:

  • Ministry of Communication (MOC), Ministry of Information (MOI) and NITA to finalize Ghana Open Data Policy by November 2018;
  • NITA and PRAAD to improve connectivity (internet and intranet) facilities for MDAs and MMDAs by August 2019;
  • PRAAD and NITA to expand the digitization of data in all MDAs to improve records management by August 2019;
  • MDAs and MMDAs to expand automation of services by August 2019;
  • NITA and PRAAD to support all MDAs and MMDAs have functional websites with periodic

and frequent updates by March 2019;

  • MoF to support Data Protection Agency to work effectively by November 2018; and,
  • NITA to support Parliament to come out with a framework to provide feedback to citizens by December 2018

Nota editorial: Para consultar el texto completo del Plan de acción de Ghana para 2017-2019, consulte: https://www.opengovpartnership.org/documents/ghana-action-plan-2017-2019/

Evaluación de informe de diseño de IRM

Evaluación del informe de implementación de IRM

Verifiable:

Pertinente:

● Access to Information

o Technology & Innovation for Transparency & Accountability

Impacto potencial: Moderado

Terminación: limitados

¿Abrió el gobierno? Marginal

This commitment aimed to improve the management of public information in Ghana, particularly digital data, in order to facilitate access by and feedback from citizens. [80] It responded to several gaps, including an unclear legal framework, internet connectivity challenges among and within government institutions, [81] the need to improve public servants’ capacity to become active consumers of information, and the need for better interagency data-sharing. [82]

Completion is assessed as limited for this commitment. The Ghana Investment Fund for Electronic Communications is continuing work on improving internet connectivity for Metropolitan, Municipal, and District Assemblies (Ministries, Departments, and Agencies and MMDAs). Public services appear to have been largely automated, given that transactions like passport applications and payment for public goods like utilities are now conducted mainly on the internet or through digital applications. Most MDAs and MMDAs have websites, though several are static and contain outdated information. [83] In the reporting period, Parliament engaged citizens through public forums to provide information on parliamentary proceedings. [84] Jerry Sam, Deputy Director of Programs with PenPlusBytes, also shared information on a Parliamentary Watch digital application that shares information on Parliament's procedures, votes, and bills. [85] There was no tangible progress with the Ghana Open Data Policy or the digitization of data in all MDAs.

The government's limited resources and the lack of an evident citizen engagement policy contributed to the slow implementation of this commitment. The Public Records and Archives Department (PRAAD), which is responsible for three main activities, does not have the resources to implement their components of the commitment. [86] Moreover, in April 2019, Communications Minister Ursula Owusu-Akuful requested MMDAs to pay their composite debt to the National Information Technology Agency, totaling 13 million Ghana cedis (approximately US $2.3 million). [87] Parliament does not appear to have a framework for citizen engagement. So far, public engagement has focused on media interactions and school and university parliamentary clubs. [88] Parliament approached PenPlusBytes to develop a digital application to facilitate its public engagement, evidently without knowing that the Parliamentary Watch application already existed.

This commitment was relevant to the OGP values of access to information and technology and innovation for transparency and accountability. Implementation of this commitment led to a marginal improvement in access to information, including through the use of technology and innovation. There was marginally better internet connectivity at MMDAs, a few new MMDA websites, and new opportunities for citizen engagement in Parliamentary proceedings. While there was progress with enhancing connectivity of public institutions and data automation, this did not translate to easier access to information by citizens. This was partly because the websites of some MDAs and MMDAs were not updated frequently and contained outdated information. This commitment would have further facilitated open government had the government developed and implemented a framework for citizen feedback and established mechanisms to ensure MDA and MMDA websites are regularly updated. These reforms would give citizens the information and platform necessary to hold the government accountable.

[80] Republic of Ghana, Open Government Partnership: National Action Plan for the Republic of Ghana (OGP, Oct. 2017) 10, https://www.opengovpartnership.org/documents/ghana-action-plan-2017-2019/.
[81] Local Government Service-Ghana, “The Local Government Service Performance Management System” (24 Nov. 2016), http://lgs.gov.gh/index.php/the-local-government-service-performance-management-system/.
[82] Web Foundation. Open Government Data Feasibility Study (2011) 3−6. https://webfoundation.org/our-work/projects/ghana-open-data-initiative-godi/
[83] Jerry Sam (journalist and Dep. Dir. of Programs, PenPlusBytes), interview by IRM researcher, 19 Jun. 2020.
[84] STAR-Ghana Foundation, “Leadership of Parliament to engage Citizens with support from STAR Ghana Foundation” (31 Jul. 2019), https://www.star-ghana.org/news-2/372-star-ghana-foundation-supports-leadership-of-parliament-to-engage-citizens.
[85] Parliamentary Watch is available at: https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=net.touchnetgh.pmw&hl=en. The application appears to be part of an e-parliament project discussed in this article: Kwami Ahiabenu II, “e-Parliament: Bringing citizens closer to Parliament” (20 Jul. 2016), https://www.graphic.com.gh/features/opinion/e-parliament-bringing-citizens-closer-to-parliament.html.
[86] Sam, interview.
[87] Ghana News Agency, “Pay your GH₵13m NITA debt – Ursula orders MMDAs” (Ghana Business News, 16 Apr. 2019), https://www.ghanabusinessnews.com/2019/04/16/pay-your-gh%E2%82%B513m-nita-debt-ursula-orders-mmdas/.
[88] Sam, interview.

Compromisos

  1. Contratación abierta y monitoreo de contratos

    GH0020, 2017, Anticorrupción

  2. Transparencia anticorrupción

    GH0021, 2017, Anticorrupción

  3. Beneficiarios reales

    GH0022, 2017, Anticorrupción

  4. Transparencia fiscal y rendición de cuentas

    GH0023, 2017, Apertura fiscal

  5. Transparencia del sector extractivo

    GH0024, 2017, Anticorrupción

  6. Derecho de información

    GH0025, 2017, Acceso a la información

  7. Participación Cívica y Responsabilidad

    GH0026, 2017, Apertura fiscal

  8. Tecnología e Innovación

    GH0027, 2017, Acceso a la información

  9. Compromiso destacado Contratación abierta

    GH0014, 2015, Anticorrupción

  10. RTI

    GH0015, 2015, Acceso a la información

  11. Participación ciudadana

    GH0016, 2015, Participación pública

  12. Apertura fiscal

    GH0017, 2015, Legislación y regulación

  13. Compromiso destacado Gestión de ingresos

    GH0018, 2015, Legislación y regulación

  14. Datos Abiertos

    GH0019, 2015, Acceso a la información

  15. Responsabilidad fiscal

    GH0001, 2013, Apertura fiscal

  16. Transparencia Fiscal

    GH0002, 2013, Desarrollo de capacidades

  17. Derecho de información

    GH0003, 2013, Acceso a la información

  18. Derechos humanos y anticorrupción

    GH0004, 2013, Anticorrupción

  19. Gestión de ingresos del sector extractivo

    GH0005, 2013, Anticorrupción

  20. Supervisión de inversiones

    GH0006, 2013, Anticorrupción

  21. Participacion Ciudadana

    GH0007, 2013, Desarrollo de capacidades

  22. Proyecto de ley de código de conducta

    GH0008, 2013, Anticorrupción

  23. Los informes de auditoría

    GH0009, 2013, Anticorrupción

  24. Radiodifusión nacional

    GH0010, 2013, espacio cívico

  25. e-inmigración

    GH0011, 2013, Acceso a la información

  26. Administración Financiera

    GH0012, 2013, Acceso a la información

  27. Compromiso destacado Portal de políticas

    GH0013, 2013, Acceso a la información

Open Government Partnership