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France

Diversify Recruitment Within Public Institutions (FR0023)

Overview

At-a-Glance

Action Plan: France, First Action Plan, 2015-17

Action Plan Cycle: 2015

Status: Inactive

Institutions

Lead Institution: Ministry for Decentralization and the Civil Service

Support Institution(s): NA

Policy Areas

Capacity Building

IRM Review

IRM Report: France End-of-Term Report 2015-2017, France Mid-Term Progress Report 2015-2017

Starred: No

Early Results: Did Not Change

Design i

Verifiable: Yes

Relevant to OGP Values: Not Relevant

Potential Impact:

Implementation i

Completion:

Description

STAKES The civil service has a duty to be exemplary by reflecting the French society it serves, with its diversity and its evolutions.

CONTEXT & AIM The State undertakes to facilitate the recruitment of diversified profiles that not only reflect French society, but also that are necessary to support the administrations through digital and open government evolutions.

ROADMAP
• Develop new access channels to the civil service, to improve its opening to society - In the Bill on ethics and the rights and obligations of civil servants, insert measures to renew access channels to civil service and open them a larger diversity of profiles
- Renew the preparatory classes mechanism for access to competitive examinations of category A in the three branches of the civil service, particularly by increasing by 25% the number of places offered in the integrated preparatory classes preparing candidates for the competitive examinations for entry to the civil service from 2015. The objective for 2016 is to double the number of students, to reach 1,000 places
- Develop apprenticeship in the civil service by multiplying by 10 the number of apprentices, to reach an objective of 4,000 by the beginning of the 2016 school year and 10,000 for 2017
• Address discriminatory biases upon entry into the civil service
- Upon request from the Prime Minister, launch an expert appraisal mission on discrimination issues - Modify the texts on juries and selection committee’s composition for each ministry to open them to at least one member outside the recruiting administration
- Generalize training courses on discrimination prevention for all future members of juries and selection committees
- Generalize the procedures for the quality certification of human resources departments in order to evaluate all their procedures with regard to any discriminatory risks

IRM End of Term Status Summary

20. Diversify recruitment within public institutions

Commitment Text:

ROADMAP

1. Develop new access channels to the civil service, to improve its opening to society

In the Bill on ethics and the rights and obligations of civil servants, insert measures to renew access channels to civil service and open them a larger diversity of profiles

Renew the preparatory classes mechanism for access to competitive examinations of category A in the three branches of the civil service, particularly by increasing by 25% the number of places offered in the integrated preparatory classes preparing candidates for the competitive examinations for entry to the civil service from 2015. The objective for 2016 is to double the number of students, to reach 1,000 places

Develop apprenticeship in the civil service by multiplying by 10 the number of apprentices, to reach an objective of 4,000 by the beginning of the 2016 school year and 10,000 for 2017

2. Address discriminatory biases upon entry into the civil service

Upon request from the Prime Minister, launch an expert appraisal mission on discrimination issues

Modify the texts on juries and selection committee's composition for each ministry to open them to at least one member outside the recruiting administration

Generalize training courses on discrimination prevention for all future members of juries and selection committees

Generalize the procedures for the quality certification of human resources departments in order to evaluate all their procedures with regard to any discriminatory risks

Editorial Note: This is a partial version of the commitment text. For the full commitment text please see France's national action plan: https://bit.ly/2MTYhsR.

Responsible Institution: Ministry for Decentralization and the Civil Service

Supporting Institution(s): N/A

Start Date:Not Specified

End Date:Not Specified

Commitment Aim

This commitment aimed to diversify recruitment of government civil service through two channels: (i) develop new channels for entry into the civil service; and (ii) address the discriminatory biases in the recruitment process.

The lack of civil servant diversity has long been the subject of public debate in France. A 2004 report prepared for the Ministry of Public Function and State Reform studied the education level, social background, and ethnicity of 38,000 civil servants. It found that recruitment requirements have become stricter regarding education levels, and candidates report facing gender, age, ethnic, and disability discrimination. In July 2016, another report found that the civil service is not representative of the French population and that the profile of civil servants at the state and local level is not that of the average French person.

Schools that train civil servants, such as the National School of Administration (ENA), are often criticized for their lack of diversity. There are 75 public service schools in France which train future civil servants and that might be affected by the activities proposed in this commitment. The commitment does not describe which discrimination issues have been identified in the civil service recruitment process or whether the proposed measures are appropriate for tackling the identified problem. Due to the complexity of reasons that contribute to diversity issues in the civil service, it is not clear how modifying access to entrance exams or training courses for the relevant HR personnel can address such issues.

This commitment is of unclear relevance to OGP values, as all proposed initiatives are internal to government and refer to avenues to apply to either civil service positions or to enrol in a preparatory school.

Status

Midterm: Substantial

This commitment was substantially implemented by the midterm. A “troisième concours” (a pre-existing third entrance exam and additional channel for entrance to the civil service) was created for external candidates coming from civil society, trade unions, or those who have one or more mandates as assembly members at the local level, including apprenticeship and professional contracts. Article 159 of the Equality and Citizenship Act enacted 27 January 2017 establishes that the third exam will allow candidates from more socio-economic backgrounds and different levels of education to apply to the public service, in all three public spheres: The State level, the local level, and the hospital public service.

Regarding an increased number of available seats in preparatory classes for entrance exam A (the highest level of entrance exam), implementation was limited. In 2017, ENA offered 24 spots in its preparatory class, an increase from the 17 offered in 2016 and 2015. While this activity aimed to double the number of enrolled students in 2016 to 1,000, it is difficult to quantify. Not all schools publish data on student matriculation and available school data has only been published in open data format up to 2014. Regarding an increase in public service apprenticeships, the government ran a national-level campaign to promote recruitment of apprentices. An official report, published in June 2016, indicated a 370 percent increase in public service apprenticeships, from 763 in 2014 to 3,589 in 2015. In 2015, 4,390 apprenticeships were signed.

Two appraisals of discrimination issues occurred. Olivier Rousselle, a State Council member, was in charge of one appraisal and its report was published 16 February 2017. Another appraisal was led by Yannick L'Horty and was handed to the Prime Minister on 12 July 2016. The Rousselle report recommended amending the legislation to open juries and recruitment committees to at least one person outside the administration. Institutionalisation of this measure within the national public service could be mandated by a State Council decree. A mandatory sensitisation training and a diversity certification were already in existence before the national action plan was developed. For more information, please see the IRM midterm report.[Note150: Independent Reporting Mechanism, France Rapport D'ètape (OGP, 2017), https://www.opengovpartnership.org/sites/default/files/France_Progress-Report_2015-2017.pdf.%5D

End of Term: Substantial

This commitment remains substantially implemented by the end of the term. Based on desk research, there were no significant developments in the second year of implementation.

The issue of access to public service has been integrated in the Law n° 2017-86 on Equality and Citizenship, adopted 27 January 2017. The government self-assessment indicates that five additional seats were created in the ENA preparatory classes and 86 in the preparatory classes for the Regional Administrative Institute (IRA). Data was provided on the preparatory classes from 2010 to 2014 but has not been updated since 2014. The government self-assessment also indicates that the objectives for 2016 have been fulfilled, with an increase of almost 25%,[Note151: Ministère de la fonction publique, Les nouveaux apprentis dans la fonction publique en 2015 (2016), https://www.fonction-publique.gouv.fr/files/files/statistiques/stats-rapides/apprentis-2015.pdf (accessed 6 Oct. 2017).] and 10,000 apprenticeships expected for 2017. The IRM researcher did not find any publicly available information in the number of apprenticeships created during the second year of implementation of the action plan. The Ministry of Public Service was active in a number of reforms to modify access to civil service, including the composition of juries which should be more professionalised since the circular of 24 June 2015.[Note152: Ministère de la décentralisation et de la fonction publique, Guide pratique Des concours administratifs à l'usage des présidents et membres de jurys (2015), https://www.fonction-publique.gouv.fr/files/files/publications/coll_outils_de_la_GRH/guide-concours-administratifs-jurys-2015.pdf (accessed 6 Oct. 2017).]

Did It Open Government?

Access to Information: Did Not Change

Civic Participation: Did Not Change

Public Accountability: Did Not Change

Increased access to, and diversity within, the civil service is important for maintaining trust in public institutions and the legitimacy of public authority. However, as indicated in the midterm IRM report, this commitment largely focused on internal government reforms and hence was not relevant to OGP values. As implemented, the commitment activities made some preparatory steps towards more significant reforms to the civil services, such as the inclusion of a more diverse public, but did not create opportunities for citizens to further engage in decision-making regarding diversity in the civil service, nor were there public-facing mechanisms established to hold public officials accountable when addressing discriminatory practices within the civil service. Therefore, the commitment did not clearly relate to OGP values. Moreover, the IRM researcher did not find any information regarding any evaluation of the initiatives. As such, this commitment did not contribute to open government.

Carried Forward?

This commitment was not carried over to the next action plan.


France's Commitments

  1. Transparency of Public Services

    FR0030, 2018, E-Government

  2. Transparency of Public Procurement

    FR0031, 2018, E-Government

  3. Transparency of Development Aid

    FR0032, 2018, Aid

  4. Expand Open Data

    FR0033, 2018, E-Government

  5. Improved Data Policies and Administration

    FR0034, 2018, Capacity Building

  6. Transparency of Public Algorithms

    FR0035, 2018, E-Government

  7. Open Data at Sub-National Level

    FR0036, 2018, Capacity Building

  8. State AI Lab

    FR0037, 2018, Capacity Building

  9. Administrative Capacity-Building

    FR0038, 2018, Capacity Building

  10. Public Service Incubators

    FR0039, 2018, Capacity Building

  11. Streamline Data Flows

    FR0040, 2018, E-Government

  12. Open Etat Forum

    FR0041, 2018, E-Government

  13. Online Procedures Dashboard

    FR0042, 2018, E-Government

  14. Govtech Summit

    FR0043, 2018, Capacity Building

  15. Imrove Public Consultation Mechanisms

    FR0044, 2018, E-Government

  16. International Transparency and Citizen Participation

    FR0045, 2018, Aid

  17. Public Pariticipation in Sustainable Development

    FR0046, 2018, Capacity Building

  18. Open Science

    FR0047, 2018, E-Government

  19. Citizen Involvement in Cour Des Comptes

    FR0048, 2018, Capacity Building

  20. Private Sector Transparency

    FR0049, 2018, Asset Disclosure

  21. Access to Information on Public Officials

    FR0050, 2018, Asset Disclosure

  22. Open Regional and Local Authorities' Data

    FR0001, 2015, Fiscal Transparency

  23. Publish Municipal Council Decisions and Reports Online

    FR0002, 2015, E-Government

  24. Publish Building Permits in Open Data Format

    FR0003, 2015, Open Data

  25. Starred commitment Increase Transparency in Public Procurement

    FR0004, 2015, Open Contracting and Procurement

  26. Improve Transparency in International Development Aid

    FR0005, 2015, Aid

  27. Open Access to Public Policy Evaluations

    FR0006, 2015, E-Government

  28. Involve Citizens in Cour Des Comptes Work

    FR0007, 2015, Fiscal Transparency

  29. Access to Public Officials Transparency Obligations

    FR0008, 2015, E-Government

  30. Starred commitment Beneficial Ownership

    FR0009, 2015, Beneficial Ownership

  31. Transparency in Extractive Industries

    FR0010, 2015, Extractive Industries

  32. Transparency in International Trade Commercial Negotiations

    FR0011, 2015, Labor

  33. Fix My Neighborhood

    FR0012, 2015, E-Government

  34. Digital Fix-It

    FR0013, 2015, Open Data

  35. Co-Produce Data Infrastructure with Civil Society

    FR0014, 2015, Open Data

  36. Starred commitment Open Legal Resources

    FR0015, 2015, Legislation & Regulation

  37. Reform Participatory Mechanisms

    FR0016, 2015, Public Participation

  38. Mediation and Justice

    FR0017, 2015, Judiciary

  39. Starred commitment Open and Circulate Data

    FR0018, 2015, Land & Spatial Planning

  40. Open Calculation Models and Simulators

    FR0019, 2015, Open Data

  41. Open Platform for Government Resources

    FR0020, 2015, E-Government

  42. Improve Public Services Through E-Government and User Interaction

    FR0021, 2015, E-Government

  43. Empower Civil Society to Support Schools

    FR0022, 2015, E-Government

  44. Diversify Recruitment Within Public Institutions

    FR0023, 2015, Capacity Building

  45. Culture Change

    FR0024, 2015, Capacity Building

  46. Spread Public Innovation

    FR0025, 2015, Capacity Building

  47. Starred commitment Protect Against Conflicts of Interest

    FR0026, 2015, Conflicts of Interest

  48. Civil Society & Transparency in COP21 Conference Planning

    FR0027, 2015, Environment and Climate

  49. Open Data and Climate/Sustainable Development

    FR0028, 2015, Open Data

  50. Collaborate with Civil Society on Climate and Sustainable Development

    FR0029, 2015, Environment and Climate