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North Macedonia

Defining a methodology for assessing the risks of corruption by updating the concept of integrity (MK0066)

Overview

At-a-Glance

Action Plan: Macedonia, Second Action Plan, 2014-16

Action Plan Cycle: 2014

Status: Inactive

Institutions

Lead Institution: State Commission for Prevention of Corruption

Support Institution(s): Units of local self government, UNDP, OSCE

Policy Areas

Anti-Corruption Institutions

IRM Review

IRM Report: Macedonia End-of-Term Report 2014-2016

Starred: No

Early Results: Did Not Change Did Not Change

Design i

Verifiable: Yes

Relevant to OGP Values: Public Accountability

Potential Impact:

Implementation i

Completion:

Description

Defining a methodology for assessing the risks of corruption by updating the concept of integrity

IRM End of Term Status Summary

X. Anti-Corruption: Integrity Standards 

Commitment 4.3: Integrity System Pilots  

Commitment Text: .. 4.3. Introducing guidelines to the integrity system and their further piloting in the municipalities and central level institutions.

Commitment 4.4: Methodology for Risk Assessment

Commitment Text: 4.4. Defining a methodology for assessing the risks of corruption by updating the concept of integrity.

Commitment 4.5: Local Self-Government Integrity Index  

Commitment Text: .. 4.5. Developing a methodology for monitoring the progress of implementation of integrity systems (integrity index) for local self-governments.

Commitment 4.6: CSO Integrity Monitoring 

Commitment Text: 4.6. Developing a methodology for monitoring progress in implementation of integrity systems by the civil society (through tools for social responsibility).

Responsible institution(s): State Commission for Prevention of Corruption

Supporting institution(s): Units of Local self-government, UNDP and OSCE

Start Date: 1/1/2014   End Date: 31/12/2015

Commitment aim

These four commitments attempted to build upon previous efforts by the State Commission for Prevention of Corruption to introduce integrity systems in Macedonia.[Note 70: Group of authors. Promoting Transparency and Accountability in Public Institutions (Skopje: OSCE, 2012), accessible at: http://bit.ly/1uFd7Et.] Integrity systems should provide a framework for assessing risks and employing measures to ensure that those risks are mitigated system-wide, with the involvement of stakeholders.[Note 71: Specifically, they are the systems in an organisation or bureaucracy that combine the tools, actors, and processes to define, monitor, and enforce the norms and values of public integrity. Towards a Sound Integrity Framework: Instruments, Processes, Structures and Conditions for Implementation (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris, 2009), available at: http://bit.ly/214PZB8.]

Status

Midterm

Commitment 4.3: Limited

Commitment 4.4: Complete

Commitment 4.5: Substantial

Commitment 4.6: Substantial

The IRM midterm review found limited progress on commitment 4.3. In the first year of implementation, 47 (out of 81) municipalities signed the declaration for anti-corruption,[Note 72: IRM interview with officials from the State Anti-Corruption Commission, and national news coverage during the international day for fight against corruption, 9 December 2014. See, for example, http://bit.ly/1PzUWxS.] but no national, central level institutions joined the process. For this reason, only limited progress had been made toward the commitment.

Commitment 4.4 was completed in 2013 with the adoption of the Common Assessment Framework.[Note 73: Introduced in 2013 with the adoption of the Law Introducing a System of Quality Management and Common Assessment Framework, published in the Official Gazette No. 69, 14 May 2013. The law prescribed the obligation for all state bodies to start implementing CAF from 1 January 2014.]

Commitment 4.5 sought to develop a local self-government integrity index. In the first year of implementation, the State Commission for Prevention of Corruption, in cooperation with CSOs, developed two different indices; the first was based on information that was proactively available, the second on the integrity framework. Since the commitment sought only to develop the indices, it was assessed by IRM as substantially completed.

The final commitment within this group (4.6) had substantial progress. CSOs developed and piloted a methodology with interested public enterprises to improve their integrity systems.[Note 74: IRN National Consultations Forum.]

For more information, please see the 2014-2016 IRM midterm report.

End of term

Commitment 4.3: Limited

Commitment 4.5: Substantial

Commitment 4.6: Substantial

The government did not report additional progress on commitment 4.3, and the IRM researcher was able to confirm this during the review.

Commitments 4.5 and 4.6 related to the development of a methodology for monitoring integrity systems at the national and local levels. As assessed in the midterm report, different indices were developed to measure the implementation of mandatory responsibilities for risk management introduced in 2013. However, in practice, implementation was limited only to pilot institutions.[Note 75: Sladjana Taseva et al., National Integrity System: Assessment of Macedonia, (Skopje: Transparency International, 2016), available at: http://bit.ly/2iy6inY [In Macedonian].] In December 2015, the State Commission for Prevention of Corruption adopted a new state program in which the integrity system was one of the key priorities.[Note 76: Commission for Prevention of Corruption, State Program for Anti-Corruption 2016-2019 (Skopje: 2015), available at: http://bit.ly/2cF4uGN [in Macedonian] and http://bit.ly/2pVr3OH [in English].] From a review of the program by the IRM researcher, it was possible to (1) determine the Commission’s plans to revise the legislation; (2) provide new guidance for the integrity systems; (3) develop a concept model for institutional integrity; and (4) come up with a methodology for monitoring the implementation of the systems.[Note 77: Ibid, 31-33.] This suggests that the results achieved within this cluster of commitments were not final. Therefore, progress is considered substantial.

Did it open government?

Public Accountability: Marginal

Civic Participation: Marginal

Widespread corruption remains one of the key challenges for Macedonia. It was at the heart of the biggest political crisis in the country during the implementation of the second national action plan.[Note 78: Emina Nuredinoska et al., Report for the Assessment of Corruption in Macedonia, (Skopje: MCIC, 2016), available at: http://bit.ly/2dv81gL [In Macedonian]. ] The European Commission reported that corruption was a serious and prevalent problem in many areas of Macedonia, characterizing it as ‘state capture.’[Note 79: European Commission, Annual Progress Report for 2016 (Brussels: EC, 2016), 4-5, available at: http://bit.ly/2jeI2Jk.] The U.S. Department of State stated in 2016 that the most significant human rights problems stem from high levels of corruption.[Note 80: US State Department, Country Report on Human Rights Practices 2015 (Washington: 2016), 19-20, available at: http://bit.ly/2dwrjhn. ] An independent assessment in 2016 noted that about 74.8% of the Macedonian people consider the sudden enrichment of public officials to be the leading factor in widespread corruption.

Additionally, 70% of Macedonians believed the lack of administrative control and an inefficient judiciary were main reasons for corruption.[Note 81: Emina Nuredinoska, Marija Sazdevski, Borjan Guzelov, Misa Popovic, Report for the Assessment of Corruption in Macedonia 2016, (Skopje: MCIC, 2016), available at: http://bit.ly/2dv81gL [in Macedonian].] The government aimed to bolster the fight against corruption by systematically introducing mechanisms, tools, and measures to promote the integrity of public institutions.

Despite a significant completion rate, the commitments only marginally improved government practice regarding civic participation and public accountability. In 2016, an independent civil society assessment of the efficiency of the national integrity system stated that the institutions responsible for preventing and combating corruption were neither effectively managed nor sufficiently independent to tackle corruption, and lacked integrity.[Note 82: Sladjana Tasev, National Integrity System Assessment Macedonia, (Skopje: Transparency Macedonia, 2016), 26, available at: http://bit.ly/2deBqbe. ] The EC also noted the structural shortcomings of the State Commission for Prevention of Corruption and the political interference that minimised its impact. According to Transparency International, political elites have too much power in Macedonia, and there are few ways to hold the corrupt accountable.[Note 83: Andy McDevitt, Fighting Corruption in the Western Balkans and Turkey: Priorities for Reform, (Transparency International: 2016), available at: http://bit.ly/2itucpf.] Furthermore, an assessment of the work of the Commission by civil society pointed to a lack of efficiency, independence, relevance, and transparency.[Note 84: Martin Duvnjak, Assessment of the Work of the Commission for Prevention of Corruption, (Skopje: MCIC, 2016), available at: http://bit.ly/2deDH6a [in Macedonian].]

Civil society organisations provided a foundation for the further development of the cooperative model. The Commission recognized the newly-established civil society “Platform against Corruption,” as a viable platform for their future activities.[Note 85: The Platform against Corruption has signed a cooperation agreement with the Commission, and has engaged with it in the development of the new State program for fight against corruption.] However, the impact of this cooperation has been limited so far. This should be further promoted by both sides to boost the preventive role of the Commission, which was significantly reduced during the reporting period.[Note 86: As reported by the EC, in 2015, “the SCPC slowed down its corruption prevention activities significantly. It filed only two requests to prosecutors to initiate criminal proceedings (compared with 7 in 2014). It carried out checks on asset declarations of only 43 elected and appointed officials. It also initiated 7 misdemeanour proceedings for failure to declare assets (51 in 2014). The SCPC asked the Public Revenue Office to conduct asset examination procedures in only 10 suspicious cases (58 in 2014).”] 

Carried forward?

The new action plan includes one commitment to promote integrity systems and transparency at the local level. The commitment has two milestones. The first focuses on local governments adopting anti-corruption policies and integrity systems, and the second commits to regular monitoring using the two indices developed within the second action plan.

 


North Macedonia's Commitments

  1. Awareness-raising about Access to Information Rights

    MK0121, 2018, Capacity Building

  2. Public Access to Central Register of the Republic of Macedonia

    MK0122, 2018, Beneficial Ownership

  3. Mapping homeless and socially endangered families and individuals

    MK0123, 2018, E-Government

  4. Monitoring property status of elected and appointed officials

    MK0124, 2018, Anti-Corruption Institutions

  5. Assessment of anti-corruption legislation

    MK0125, 2018, Anti-Corruption Institutions

  6. Open Treasury

    MK0126, 2018, E-Government

  7. Publishing procurement information

    MK0127, 2018, E-Government

  8. Health Sector Transparency and establish a cost impact assessment mechanism

    MK0128, 2018, Capacity Building

  9. Employment program transparency and impact assessment mechanism

    MK0129, 2018, Capacity Building

  10. Cataloging data sets in state institutions

    MK0130, 2018, E-Government

  11. regional open data initiatives

    MK0131, 2018, Open Data

  12. Financial Transparency Tools

    MK0132, 2018, E-Government

  13. Improvement in Local Public Service Delivery

    MK0133, 2018, Beneficial Ownership

  14. Inclusive local decision-making

    MK0134, 2018, Gender

  15. To resilient Skopje via data availability

    MK0135, 2018, Infrastructure & Transport

  16. Access to Justice Development

    MK0136, 2018, Justice

  17. Improving access to justice for marginalized groups of citizens

    MK0137, 2018, Capacity Building

  18. Awareness-raisinga about Climate Change

    MK0138, 2018, Environment and Climate

  19. national assembly capacity-building

    MK0139, 2018, Capacity Building

  20. Increasing the financial transparency of the Assembly of RM

    MK0140, 2018, Fiscal Transparency

  21. Better Access to Information

    MK0140, 2018, E-Government

  22. Parliamentary TV channel

    MK0141, 2018, E-Government

  23. Citizen participation in Assembly

    MK0142, 2018, Legislature

  24. Creation of open data standards

    MK0089, 2016, Legislation & Regulation

  25. Improvement of the open data platform and its approximation to the citizens

    MK0090, 2016, Capacity Building

  26. Rising awareness of open data

    MK0091, 2016, Capacity Building

  27. Cataloging and categorization of data sets held by state institutions

    MK0092, 2016, E-Government

  28. Open data Linking on the state institutions’ portals

    MK0093, 2016, E-Government

  29. Improvement and facilitation of the access to information

    MK0094, 2016, Capacity Building

  30. Implementation of the Law on Whistle-Blower Protection and raising the awareness for whistle-blowing

    MK0095, 2016, Anti-Corruption Institutions

  31. Open data on property status of elected and appointed persons

    MK0096, 2016, Anti-Corruption Institutions

  32. Promotion of integrity, transparency and accountability on local level and monitoring the progress

    MK0097, 2016, Anti-Corruption Institutions

  33. Promotion of cooperation and increased proactivity in the prevention of corruption and conflict of interests

    MK0098, 2016, Anti-Corruption Institutions

  34. Starred commitment Open budget initiative

    MK0099, 2016, Fiscal Transparency

  35. Open Data on Health Programs

    MK0100, 2016, Fiscal Transparency

  36. Creating a legal obligation for the contracting authorities for mandatory publication of information regarding the public procurement contracts on their websites

    MK0101, 2016, Fiscal Transparency

  37. Involving representatives of associations and foundations, as well as other civil society organizations, in transparent and objective manner in sector working groups for planning and programming of IPA 2

    MK0102, 2016, Public Participation

  38. Publication of data on signed contracts and received assistance through Infrastructure Development Program (ORIO) Netherlands

    MK0103, 2016, Aid

  39. Introduction of a publicly accessible register of concession contracts

    MK0104, 2016, E-Government

  40. Increased budgetary fund benefits in preventive and curative health protection for citizens

    MK0105, 2016, Capacity Building

  41. Publication of data on planned and realized domestic and foreign assistance for rural development and agriculture on a quarterly basis

    MK0106, 2016, Aid

  42. Determination of data on state assistance to be published and their publication

    MK0107, 2016, Aid

  43. Developing standards for transparency and open data on local level

    MK0108, 2016, Capacity Building

  44. Establishment of new tools to improve financial transparency and accountability of Local self-government units

    MK0109, 2016, Capacity Building

  45. Improvement of the institutional consultation mechanism at the local level

    MK0110, 2016, Capacity Building

  46. Capacity strengthening for cooperation between the local self-government units and civil organizations

    MK0111, 2016, Capacity Building

  47. Monitoring and evaluation of service quality at the local level

    MK0112, 2016, Capacity Building

  48. Improvement of the local level social services

    MK0113, 2016, Capacity Building

  49. Improvement of disabled people social inclusion at the local level

    MK0114, 2016, E-Government

  50. Improvement of the local level communal services

    MK0115, 2016, Capacity Building

  51. More information for the citizens on the Ombudsman institution

    MK0116, 2016, Anti-Corruption Institutions

  52. Favorable legal environment for social contracts

    MK0117, 2016, Civic Space

  53. Developing climate policies at national level in a transparent and participatory manner

    MK0118, 2016, Environment and Climate

  54. Open data on climate change at national and local level

    MK0119, 2016, Capacity Building

  55. Ensuring private sector accountability and involvement in national climate change action

    MK0120, 2016, E-Government

  56. Advancement of the consultation process with stakeholders in the policy creating process

    MK0087, 2016, E-Government

  57. Cooperation advancement with the civil sector

    MK0088, 2016, Capacity Building

  58. Enhancement of the ENER portal and optimization of the process of public consultation

    MK0036, 2014, E-Government

  59. Implementation of the measures from the Strategy for Cooperation of the Government with the Civil Society (2012-2017)

    MK0037, 2014, E-Government

  60. Strengthening the rules for work and use of ENER

    MK0038, 2014, E-Government

  61. Publication of the results of using ENER - " Mirror of the Government "

    MK0039, 2014, E-Government

  62. Monitoring of openness of government institutions in the processes of policy making and law drafting "Mirror of the Government: public participation in the process of law drafting" Annual Report – assessment of:

    MK0040, 2014, Public Participation

  63. Capacity building of civil society organizations to monitor the implementation of policies

    MK0041, 2014, Capacity Building

  64. Raising the awareness about the benefits of Open Government Partnership:

    MK0042, 2014, Capacity Building

  65. Greater public awareness and use of participatory policy making through the internet portal e-democracy by the institutions, companies, chambers, civil society and citizens

    MK0043, 2014, E-Government

  66. Starred commitment Establishing of an advisory body to promote cooperation, dialogue and encourage the development of the civil society, composed of representatives of the Government, administrative bodies and civil society organizations

    MK0044, 2014, Public Participation

  67. Improved implementation of the Code of Good Practice for the participation of civil society in the policy making process

    MK0045, 2014, Capacity Building

  68. Open data of the bodies and public sector institutions according to their technical features which they create in exercise of their powers that will be made available for use

    MK0046, 2014, Open Data

  69. Setting of technical standards for the data format and the manner of its publication prescribed by the Minister of Information Society and Administration.

    MK0047, 2014, Open Data

  70. Establishing a Central catalog of public sector data published for use based on a catalog of data from the bodies and the institutions of the public sector www.otvorenipodatoci.gov.mk (opendata.gov.mk)

    MK0048, 2014, E-Government

  71. Establishing a database for the contact person in the bodies and institutions of the public sector where a contact person shall be appointed responsible for the technical adaptation and publishing of data for use, their publication on the website of the authority and responsibilities for the accuracy of the catalog data www.opendata.gov.mk.

    MK0049, 2014, Open Data

  72. Introducing the possibility for submission of a request by the interested parties for new datasets for use.

    MK0050, 2014, Open Data

  73. Establishing a platform for data mashing (pilot 11 institutions)

    MK0051, 2014, E-Government

  74. Trainings for implementation of the Law on Use of Data from the Public Sector

    MK0052, 2014, Capacity Building

  75. Raising public awareness about the right to free access to public information through the created and conducted media presentations and educational campaign

    MK0053, 2014, Capacity Building

  76. Establishing of inter-sector working group for determining the compliance with the Convention of the Council of Europe for access to public documents and setting national legal requirements for accession to the Convention

    MK0054, 2014, Public Participation

  77. Educating officers and officials at the information holders (Commission for Protection of the Right to Free Access to Public Information)

    MK0055, 2014, Capacity Building

  78. Making a new web site of the Commission (Ministry of Information Society and Administration)

    MK0056, 2014, E-Government

  79. Regular posting and updating the list of information holders

    MK0057, 2014, Capacity Building

  80. Availability of all public information on the web sites of the information holders (all holders)

    MK0058, 2014, Capacity Building

  81. Improving the financial and human resources of the Commission (Ministry of Finance, the Commission for Protection of the Right to Free Access to Public Information and the Ministry of Information Society and Administration)

    MK0059, 2014, Capacity Building

  82. Increasing the cooperation of the Commission with associations and foundations and municipalities in RM through Memorandum of Cooperation

    MK0060, 2014, Capacity Building

  83. Publishing information about budget and program implementation of health budgets, with particular focus on the budgetary and financial implementation of preventive programs of the Ministry of Health, obtained through a procedure of access to public information www.esem.org.mk

    MK0061, 2014, E-Government

  84. Amending the Law on Free Access to Public Information (Ministry of Justice)

    MK0062, 2014, Legislation & Regulation

  85. Starred commitment Adoption of amendments to the Law on Prevention of Corruption in the direction of:

    MK0063, 2014, Anti-Corruption Institutions

  86. Implementation of activities to raise awareness of public administration and citizens to report corruption and other unlawful and impermissible actions

    MK0064, 2014, Anti-Corruption Institutions

  87. Introducing guidelines to the integrity system and their further piloting in the municipalities and central level institutions

    MK0065, 2014, Capacity Building

  88. Defining a methodology for assessing the risks of corruption by updating the concept of integrity

    MK0066, 2014, Anti-Corruption Institutions

  89. Developing a methodology for monitoring the progress of implementation of integrity systems (integrity index) for local self governments

    MK0067, 2014, Anti-Corruption Institutions

  90. Developing a methodology for monitoring progress in implementation of integrity systems by the civil society (through tools for social responsibility)

    MK0068, 2014, Anti-Corruption Institutions

  91. Continuously promote the use of IT tools for social responsibility in the municipalities and other institutions

    MK0069, 2014, Capacity Building

  92. Building the capacity of civil society organizations to monitor anti-corruption practices at the local level through research and a LOTOS study

    MK0070, 2014, Anti-Corruption Institutions

  93. Defining the scope of the elected and appointed persons who are obliged to submit declarations of assets and interests statement - Preparation of the Register

    MK0071, 2014, Asset Disclosure

  94. Implementation of the Open Budget Initiative

    MK0072, 2014, Fiscal Transparency

  95. Starred commitment Public procurement

    MK0073, 2014, Open Contracting and Procurement

  96. Foreign aid and foreign investment

    MK0074, 2014, Aid

  97. Developing capacities at local level for the implementation of mechanisms for proactive communication with citizens

    MK0075, 2014, Capacity Building

  98. Establish an electronic platform (dashboard) with indicators for the budget and delivery of local services

    MK0076, 2014, E-Government

  99. Improving local services through direct collaboration with citizens

    MK0077, 2014, Public Participation

  100. Transforming the part of local services in e- services

    MK0078, 2014, E-Government

  101. Participatory policy making at the local level- obligatory consultations with citizens in drafting/amending of the most important acts and documents in the local government (budget, strategies, urban plans, statute)

    MK0079, 2014, Legislation & Regulation

  102. Increasing accountability and promoting the concept of informed consumers and citizens, service users and rights through:

    MK0080, 2014, Capacity Building

  103. Publication of the results of the projects for evaluation of public administration

    MK0081, 2014, Capacity Building

  104. Inclusive elementary and secondary education for persons with disabilities

    MK0082, 2014, Education

  105. Enforcement activities of the Center for Safer Internet Action Plan in accordance with (Inhope Macedonia)

    MK0083, 2014, Capacity Building

  106. Analysis of the results obtained in field research at the national level to implement the program

    MK0084, 2014, Capacity Building

  107. Informing women on the rights and the services available to them with the Programme

    MK0085, 2014, Capacity Building

  108. Increasing responsibilities and promote the concept of environmental protection (DEM – AD Treska, Makedonski Brod and other stakeholders):

    MK0086, 2014, Environment and Climate

  109. ENER on line participatory tool in legislation drafting; 1)Publishing draft laws; 2)ENER usage data

    MK0001, 2012, Public Participation

  110. www.e-demokratija.gov.mk - on line tool for participatory policy making

    MK0002, 2012, E-Government

  111. Introduction of online petitions

    MK0003, 2012,

  112. Implementation of the Strategy for Cooperation of the Government with the Civil Society Sector

    MK0004, 2012, Public Participation

  113. Code of Best Practices for NGO Involvement

    MK0005, 2012, Capacity Building

  114. www.opendata.gov.mk

    MK0006, 2012, E-Government

  115. Development of business model for open data

    MK0007, 2012, Open Data

  116. Prioritizing opening of data

    MK0008, 2012, Open Data

  117. Use of inter-operable services as guidance in opening data

    MK0009, 2012, Open Data

  118. Plan and monitor the implementation of the plans for opening the state institutions information.

    MK0010, 2012, Open Data

  119. Analyses of the legal framework enabling open data.

    MK0011, 2012, Legislation & Regulation

  120. Improving services through www.uslugi.gov.mk

    MK0012, 2012, E-Government

  121. Integration of Citizen Logs, their update and publishing

    MK0013, 2012, E-Government

  122. ‘Traffic light’ project for citizens’ evaluation of the administration.

    MK0014, 2012, Public Participation

  123. Provision of the Government services through cloud computing.

    MK0015, 2012, E-Government

  124. Introduction of one-off request for the information from the citizens.

    MK0016, 2012, Legislation & Regulation

  125. Use of harm test. and 2. Publication of information gathered through the Free Access Law

    MK0017, 2012, Right to Information

  126. Publication of easy to search public information.

    MK0018, 2012, Right to Information

  127. Ratification of the Council of Europe Convention on Access to Public Documents.

    MK0019, 2012, Legislation & Regulation

  128. Electronic submission of requests for access to public character information.

    MK0020, 2012, E-Government

  129. Training of access to information officers.

    MK0021, 2012, E-Government

  130. Identification of low interest areas for business investments. 2.Publication of research.

    MK0022, 2012, Education

  131. Scientific and research cooperation through the Internet.

    MK0023, 2012, E-Government

  132. Publication of information from the State Statistical Office for further scientific purposes.

    MK0024, 2012, Education

  133. Available information about the Inspectorates

    MK0025, 2012, Justice

  134. Introduce integrity systems for anticorruption policies in the public administration.

    MK0026, 2012, Capacity Building

  135. Open Budget initiative

    MK0027, 2012, Fiscal Transparency

  136. Public Procurements

    MK0028, 2012, E-Government

  137. Foreign assistance and foreign investments

    MK0029, 2012, Aid

  138. Opening of information by the Municipalities

    MK0030, 2012, Open Data

  139. Free access to information training local self-government officials

    MK0031, 2012, Capacity Building

  140. Integrity system on local level.1. Established methodology. 2. Piloting in 10 municipalities.

    MK0032, 2012, Conflicts of Interest

  141. Promotion of consumers information in selected areas.

    MK0033, 2012, Gender

  142. Availability of information related to: roads safety, air quality, safety of workers

    MK0034, 2012, E-Government

  143. Public health information

    MK0035, 2012, Health