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Albania

Creating a Database for Archiving and Publication of Research Funds and Programs in Albania (AL0049)

Overview

At-a-Glance

Action Plan: Albania Third Action Plan 2016 – 2018

Action Plan Cycle: 2016

Status: Inactive

Institutions

Lead Institution: Ministry of Education and Sport

Support Institution(s): Agency for Research, Technology and Innovation; IDM

Policy Areas

E-Government, Fiscal Transparency, Public Service Delivery, Records Management, Science & Technology

IRM Review

IRM Report: Albania End-of-Term Report 2016-2018, Albania Progress Report 2016-2018

Starred: No

Early Results: Did Not Change

Design i

Verifiable: Yes

Relevant to OGP Values: Access to Information Technology

Potential Impact:

Implementation i

Completion:

Description

The Albanian government will be committed to maximizing access to information related to researches funded by public and private funds to promote greater cooperation between the scientific community, public institutions and private sector. Activities proposed in this context are the following: - Development, adoption and promotion of open standards for science in Albania. - Completion of legislation through a bylaw to enable one-stop search for publications and data resulting from scientific work undertaken by the Albanian institutions and researchers (supported by albanian and other funding resources). Status quo or problem addressed by the commitment In Albania there is few cooperation (or nonexistent) between the scientific community and the private sector and the scientific community and public institutions about policy-making based on evidence. One of the main negative consequences is the lack of research’s results produced in Albania. Currently, there are a number of programs in the country (with public funds or donor’s funds) that support research. But the lack of a unique portal, which should contain all research deliverables and calls, hinders the development of this cooperation. Main Objective The Albanian Government is committed to maximize access to research financed by public and non-public funds to promote greater cooperation between the scientific community, public and private sector institutions. Activities proposed: - The development, adoption and promotion of standards for Open Science in Albania. - Creation of an online service to provide one stop search for publications and data resulting from scientific work undertaken by the Albanian institutions and researchers (supported by Albanian funding or others)

IRM Midterm Status Summary

6. Scientific research database

Commitment Text:

Title: Creating a database for archiving and publication of research funds and programs in Albania

In Albania there is few cooperation (or nonexistent) between the scientific community and the private sector and the scientific community and public institutions about policy-making based on evidence. One of the main negative consequences is the lack of research’s results produced in Albania. Currently, there are a number of programs in the country (with public funds or donor’s funds) that support research. But the lack of a unique portal, which should contain all research deliverables and calls, hinders the development of this cooperation.

The Albanian government will be committed to maximizing access to information related to researches funded by public and private funds to promote greater cooperation between the scientific community, public institutions and private sector. Activities proposed in this context are the following:

- Development, adoption and promotion of open standards for science in Albania.

- Completion of legislation through a bylaw to enable one-stop search for publications and data resulting from scientific work undertaken by the Albanian institutions and researchers (supported by Albanian and other funding resources).

Responsible institution: Ministry of Education and Sport

Supporting institutions: Agency for Research, Technology and Innovation (ARTI); Institute for Democracy and Mediation (IDM)

Start date: 2016 End date: 2018

Context and Objectives

According to the UNESCO Country Programming Document, science in Albania is in need of development.[Note78: UNESCO Country Programming, http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0023/002330/233036E.pdf. ] There is a lack of cooperation among the scientific community (i.e. private sector and public institutions) regarding science-based policy decisions in Albania. A negative consequence of limited cooperation is that research produced in Albania rarely impacts policy making. Evidence-based policy making, on the other hand, relies on active involvement of informed stakeholders, quality of research and open access to research products.

In the past year, some initiatives focusing on open science and creation of databases with applied and scientific research data have taken place. These initiatives include the European Union research innovation program 'Horizon 2020,' to build capacity and increase investment in research.[Note79: EC report, https://ec.europa.eu/neighbourhood-enlargement/.
sites/near/files/pdf/key_documents/2016/20161109_report_albania.pdf. ]
Another initiative is the 'South-Eastern European Data Services,' which aims to establish new data services to curate and preserve digital social science data and make these available free of charge to the research community for secondary analyses.[Note80: South-Eastern European Data Services, http://seedsproject.ch/?page_id=2. ] Another initiative is the Regional Cooperation Council (RCC) working group on open science with western Balkan countries.[Note81: RCC program on Skills and mobility, http://www.rcc.int/flagships/3/skills-and-mobility and workshop on 'Researcher mobility and open science contributing to research excellence' http://www.rcc.int/news/203/researcher-mobility-and-open-science-contributing-to-research-excellence. ]

The purpose of these initiatives and this commitment is to bring Albania closer to European standards of open science.[Note82: Specifically EC recommendation on access to and preservation of scientific information (2012, https://ec.europa.eu/research/science-society/document_library/pdf_06/recommendation-access-and-preservation-scientific-information_en.pdf. ] A 2015 assesment carried out by the Regional Research Promotion Programme (RRPP) and the Institute for Democracy and Mediation (IDM) on evidence-based designing of social programs found a discrepancy between evidence and policies, with regards to timing, budgeting and content. Additionally the report identifies some serious concerns, including the accuracy of data produced by different actors and the difficulty in translating programs’ evidence and their implementation on the ground.[Note83: Report on the Roundtable 'Use of Scientific Evidence in Designing Social Protection Policies in Albania' (March 2015), http://idmalbania.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/10/Evidence-based-Policymaking-Roundtable_report.pdf.]

Despite the number of domestic programs and multilateral initiatives, Albania still lacks a unique portal, which should contain all research deliverables and calls. This hinders cooperation among the scientific community and policy-influencing institutions. This commitment aims to foster a culture of evidence-based policies by engaging research resources, sharing research deliverables, and thereby developing better policies. Furthermore, it encourages trilateral (public-civic-private) cooperation for efficient policies and promotes scientific research standards. This commitment aims to achieve its objective through the completion of two steps: the first is to develop, adopt, and promote open standards for science. The second is to establish legislation to enable a one-stop search portal for scientific data and publications, and subsequently to create the portal. Both activities are clear and verifiable, and the overall commitment is considered to be highly specific.

If fully implemented, this commitment would have a moderate impact on the research capacities and quality in Albania, the evidence-based policy making, and efficient policy implementation. By establishing open science standards and enabling the development of a one-stop portal for publications and data, Albania is taking an important step forward in strengthening research capabilities and output. However, for a potentially transformative impact, more needs to be done in order to increase the quality and integrity of research by public and private academic and civil society (think tanks) stakeholders.

Finally, this commitment is relevant to the OGP values of access to information and technology and innovation because it creates an aggregated portal for stakeholders to access all the scientific research undertaken by Albanian institutions and researchers.

Completion

Based on the Law 'On higher education and scientific research' and the August 2016 Council of Ministers decision,[Note84: Council of Ministers, http://www.kryeministria.al/al/newsroom/vkm/vendime-te-miratuara-ne-mbledhjen-e-keshillit-te-ministrave-date-31-gusht-2016 ] 'On the establishment, composition and functioning of the National Agency of Scientific Research and Innovation,' the Agency for Research, Technology and Innovation (AKTI) was renamed as 'National Agency of Scientific Research and Innovation' (NASRI) and transferred under the authority of the Ministry of Education and Sports. Over the past year, the transformed AKTI has faced serious challenges in terms of human resources and infrastructure, thus making it difficult to perform its duties.[Note85: Interviews with former and current officials of (former) AKTI during 2016/2017.]

Additionally, while the Institute for Democracy and Mediation (IDM) is listed as a supporting institution, the IDM had no involvement in this commitment. The government thought that the CSO proposing the commitment would also be in charge of its implementation. While no official information has been offered to the IRM researcher on the progress of this commitment, additional investigation could also not track any progress in implementing either of the milestones.

Next Steps

As planned under the current action plan, this commitment intended to create the necessary legal and institutional framework for a national database of scientific and applied research data, as well as to launch the actual portal. However, additional work needs to be done to substantively develop a functional portal, which should be a follow up for this commitment.

Re-design of this commitment needs to start from the responsible authority, given the recent changes and competences of (now) NASRI. Rather than relying on foreign donors’ projects, the Ministry of Education and NASRI must act on adopting the legal and policy documents for open science in accordance with the European Commission (EC) 2012 recommendation, which entails the inclusion of an institutional framework that will enable an online database on scientific and applied research datasets produced in Albania. Furthermore, the commitment needs to identify and seek the cooperation and involvement of relevant institutions, such as universities, think tanks, associations of business who conduct research, etc.

IRM End of Term Status Summary

6. Scientific research database

Commitment Text:

Title: Creating a database for archiving and publication of research funds and programs in Albania

In Albania there is few cooperation (or nonexistent) between the scientific community and the private sector and the scientific community and public institutions about policy-making based on evidence. One of the main negative consequences is the lack of research’s results produced in Albania. Currently, there are a number of programs in the country (with public funds or donor’s funds) that support research. But the lack of a unique portal, which should contain all research deliverables and calls, hinders the development of this cooperation.

The Albanian government will be committed to maximizing access to information related to researches funded by public and private funds to promote greater cooperation between the scientific community, public institutions and private sector. Activities proposed in this context are the following:

- Development, adoption and promotion of open standards for science in Albania.

- Completion of legislation through a bylaw to enable one-stop search for publications and data resulting from scientific work undertaken by the Albanian institutions and researchers (supported by Albanian and other funding resources).

Responsible institution: Ministry of Education and Sport

Supporting institution(s): Agency for Research, Technology and Innovation (ARTI); Institute for Democracy and Mediation (IDM)

Start date: 2016 End date: December 2017

Commitment Aim:

This commitment aimed to foster a culture of evidence-based policies by engaging research resources and sharing research deliverables on a unique website. It expected to achieve its objective through the completion of two steps: the first was to develop, adopt, and promote open standards for science; the second was to establish legislation to enable a one-stop search portal for scientific data and publications, and subsequently to create the portal.

Status

Midterm: Not Started

This commitment was not started at the midterm. Based on the Law “On higher education and scientific research” and the Council of Ministers Decision [35] “On the establishment, composition and functioning of the National Agency of Scientific Research and Innovation” from August 2016, the Agency for Research, Technology and Innovation (AKTI) was renamed as National Agency of Scientific Research and Innovation (NASRI) and transferred under the authority of the Ministry of Education and Sports. The new agency faced serious challenges in terms of human resources and infrastructure, thus making it difficult to perform its duties. [36]

While the Institute for Democracy and Mediation (IDM) is listed as a supporting institution, it had no involvement in this commitment.

End of term: Limited

The Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports has reported making progress in setting up the regulatory framework for the quality assessment of scientific research with the approval of the Decision of the Council of Ministers (DCM) no. 165, dated 21 March 2018. [37] This decision explains the methodology for assessing the scientific research activities of the core units of higher education institutions and defining the evaluation criteria. However, in order for this procedure to be implemented, it must be complemented by two measures envisaged in the DCM: determining the algorithmic pointing system and setting up the Albanian Scientific Research Information System (ACRIS) to serve as a national database. [38]

The Ministry also reported setting up of a platform for the Digital University Library (ulibrary.rash.al) as part of the University Pact. As of early 2019, the Platform offers access to students and staff of public higher education institutions to research work of other such education institutions. Steps are also being taken to create a digitized dissertation database that will establish anti-plagiarism software to implement DCM no. 777, dated 26 December 2018, 'On anti-plagiarism of dissertations for the acquisition of scientific degrees'. [39] [40]

Did It Open Government?

Access to Information: Did Not Change

This commitment’s implementation was limited so no change can be attributed to it in terms of access to information.

Carried Forward?

At the time of writing this report, the next action plan was not available. If this issue were to be prioritized in future action plans, the Ministry of Education and NASRI could act on adopting the legal and policy documents for open science in accordance with the European Commission 2012 recommendation, which entails the inclusion of an institutional framework that will enable an online database on scientific and applied research datasets produced in Albania. Furthermore, a commitment in this area would need to entail involvement of relevant institutions, such as universities, think tanks, and associations of business who conduct research, among others.

[35] Council of Ministers, http://www.kryeministria.al/al/newsroom/vkm/vendime-te-miratuara-ne-mbledhjen-e-keshillit-te-ministrave-date-31-gusht-2016

[36] IRM Albania Progress Report 2016-2017, page 53, https://www.opengovpartnership.org/wp-content/uploads/2001/01/Albania_Mid-Term_2016-2018_EN_for-pub-comm.pdf

[37] DCM available at the Government’s portal http://www1.kryeministria.al/newsroom/vendime-te-miratuara-ne-mbledhjen-e-keshillit-te-ministrave-date-21-mars-2018/

[38] Information provided by the Ministry of Education, youth and sports during the pre-publication commenting period (July 2019).

[39] DCM available at Government’s portal http://www1.kryeministria.al/newsroom/vendime-te-miratuara-ne-mbledhjen-e-keshillit-te-ministrave-date-26-dhjetor-2018/

[40] Information provided by the Ministry of Education, youth and sports during the pre-publication commenting period (July 2019).


Commitments

  1. Transparency of Government Reporting

    AL0061, 2018, E-Government

  2. e-Government

    AL0062, 2018, E-Government

  3. Improved Business Regulation

    AL0063, 2018, Capacity Building

  4. Safe Communities

    AL0064, 2018, Anti-Corruption Institutions

  5. Improvement of Database/Portal with Coordinators’ Data of the Right to Information and Transparency Programs

    AL0044, 2016, E-Government

  6. Budget Transparency

    AL0045, 2016, E-Government

  7. Integrated Registry of Citizens’ Housing

    AL0046, 2016, Citizenship and Immigration

  8. Establishment of Electronic Registry for Public Notification and Consultation

    AL0047, 2016, E-Government

  9. Digital Archive

    AL0048, 2016, E-Government

  10. Creating a Database for Archiving and Publication of Research Funds and Programs in Albania

    AL0049, 2016, E-Government

  11. Commitment to Publish Online Central and Local Government Legislation in Open Systems and for Free

    AL0050, 2016, Capacity Building

  12. Commitment to Open Standards for Contracting

    AL0051, 2016, E-Government

  13. Starred commitment Implementation of the Law "On Protection of Whistleblowers", Capacity Building, Amendments and Its Bylaws

    AL0052, 2016, Anti-Corruption Institutions

  14. Provision of Electronic Services

    AL0053, 2016, Capacity Building

  15. Establishment of Multifunctional Centralized System for Building Permits

    AL0054, 2016, Capacity Building

  16. Establishment and Distribution of Digital Counters

    AL0055, 2016, E-Government

  17. Service Passport Standardization

    AL0056, 2016, Capacity Building

  18. Citizen Card

    AL0057, 2016, Capacity Building

  19. Electronic System of Registration of e-Prescription in the Republic of Albania

    AL0058, 2016, E-Government

  20. Electronic Monitoring System of Forests

    AL0059, 2016, Anti-Corruption Institutions

  21. Integrated Electronic System for Professional Licensing of Individuals and Legal Entities That Will Operate in the Field of Study Design and Supervision of Commissioning of Construction Works

    AL0060, 2016, E-Government

  22. Standardization of Corruption Complaints

    AL0031, 2014, Anti-Corruption Institutions

  23. Electronic Registry of Energy and Industry Permits

    AL0032, 2014, E-Government

  24. Implementation of Public Expenses Module in "Open Data" Format

    AL0033, 2014, E-Government

  25. Promoting OGP Values Among Local Authorities

    AL0034, 2014, OGP

  26. Database on Economic Assitance Beneficiaries

    AL0035, 2014, E-Government

  27. Electronic Portal on Water Resources Administration and Management

    AL0036, 2014, E-Government

  28. Single Window

    AL0037, 2014, E-Government

  29. Electronic Access to Protected Areas

    AL0038, 2014, E-Government

  30. National Geoportal

    AL0039, 2014, E-Government

  31. e-Albania

    AL0040, 2014, E-Government

  32. e-Document

    AL0041, 2014, E-Government

  33. Starred commitment Law on Whistleblowers Protection

    AL0042, 2014, Legislation & Regulation

  34. Police Service Offices

    AL0043, 2014, E-Government

  35. Open Data Portal

    AL0001, 2012, Open Data

  36. e-Acts

    AL0002, 2012, E-Government

  37. e-Parliament

    AL0003, 2012, E-Government

  38. Extension of the Governmental Network, GOVNET

    AL0004, 2012, E-Government

  39. e-Government Interoperability Framework, e-GIF

    AL0005, 2012, E-Government

  40. Government Datacenter

    AL0006, 2012, E-Government

  41. Excise System

    AL0007, 2012, E-Government

  42. Starting of the e-Tax System

    AL0008, 2012, E-Government

  43. Starred commitment Online State Matura

    AL0009, 2012, E-Government

  44. The Regulation on Ethics in Research and Publishing

    AL0010, 2012, Education

  45. Digitalization of Higher Education Accreditation Process

    AL0011, 2012, E-Government

  46. U-Gov System

    AL0012, 2012, E-Government

  47. Online Inspections of Courts and Judicial Hearings

    AL0013, 2012, E-Government

  48. Digitalization of the File Transfer Process

    AL0014, 2012, Judiciary

  49. e-Employment Project

    AL0015, 2012, E-Government

  50. e-Concessions Procedures

    AL0016, 2012, E-Government

  51. Amendment of the Law “On the Right to Information for Official Documents”

    AL0017, 2012, Justice

  52. Drafting a New Law on "Notice and Consultation"

    AL0018, 2012, Legislation & Regulation

  53. Tracking Project

    AL0019, 2012, E-Government

  54. Digitalization of the Notary Register

    AL0020, 2012, E-Government

  55. Online Citizens’ Claims in the Judiciary System

    AL0021, 2012, E-Government

  56. Work Inspection, Online Complaint

    AL0022, 2012, E-Government

  57. Financial Module of All Educational Institutions

    AL0023, 2012, Education

  58. Starred commitment Audio and Video Recording of Judicial Hearings

    AL0024, 2012, E-Government

  59. Starred commitment e-Albania Portal

    AL0025, 2012, E-Government

  60. e-Inspection Portal

    AL0026, 2012, E-Government

  61. Starred commitment Portal Www.Gjykata.Gov.Al

    AL0027, 2012, E-Government

  62. Disclosure of the List of Payments Made Daily by the Government Units

    AL0028, 2012, Fiscal Transparency

  63. e-Procurement System for All Small Purchases of Public Procurement

    AL0029, 2012, E-Government

  64. Implementation of the EITI Recommendations

    AL0030, 2012, Extractive Industries