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LAPOR!-SP4N Quality Improvements (ID0101)



Action Plan: Indonesia Action Plan 2018-2020

Action Plan Cycle: 2018

Status: Active


Lead Institution: Ministry of Administrative and Bureaucratic Reform

Support Institution(s): Ombudsman RI, YAPPIKA-ActionAid

Policy Areas

Capacity Building, E-Government, Public Participation, Social Accountability Measures & Feedback Loops

IRM Review

IRM Report: Indonesia Design Report 2018-2020

Starred: Pending IRM Review

Early Results: Pending IRM Review

Design i

Verifiable: Yes

Relevant to OGP Values: Civic Participation , Public Accountability , Technology

Potential Impact:

Implementation i

Completion: Pending IRM Review


January 2019 - December 2020
Commitment Description
Lead implementing
Ministry of Administrative and Bureaucratic Reform
Law of the Republic of Indonesia Number 25/2009 on
Public Services mandates the creation of a national
public service complaint handling system. This
mandate was strengthened through the issued
Presidential Regulation Number 76/2013 on
Management of Public Service Complaints. In 2016,
LAPOR! is confirmed as National Public Service
Complaint Management System (SP4N) based on the
Ministry of Administrative and Bureaucratic Reform
Regulation Number 3/2015. Currently LAPOR! -SP4N
has been connected with 88 K / L, 135 Local
Governments, 128 National Universities and
Coordination of Private Universities (Kopertis), 131
Indonesian Representatives abroad and 116
state-owned enterprises in Indonesia. The existence
of LAPOR! -SP4N began to be widely known by the
public, as seen from the number of complaints coming
in as many as 1,180,609 complaints (as of 2017).
However there are still a number of challenges faced
by LAPOR-SP4N, including (i) the number of reports
being followed up is still low; (ii) the integration
process at the local government level is still slow,
even tends to be only a formality (limited to the
decree) without the support of adequate facilities and
infrastructure; (iii) the response of the LAPOR! -SP4N
manager who has not yet managed to satisfy the
reporter and tends not to solve the problem; (iv) data
of complaints through LAPOR!.
What is the public problem that
the commitment will address?
Increasing the numbers of reports and the quality of
resolution on Public Service Complaints through
LAPOR!-SP4N. The increasing is marked by more
public institutions are connected with LAPOR! and
LAPOR!-SP4N supervision is categorized as good.
What is the commitment?
The challenges faced by LAPOR!-SP4N will be
overcome through a number of strategic commitments
that must be carried out by the Ministry of
Administrative and Bureaucratic Reform, The
Executive Office of the President and the Ombudsman
of the Republic of Indonesia.
First, Ministry of Administrative and Bureaucratic
Reform The Executive Office of the President and the
Ombudsman of the Republic of Indonesia must set a basic standard which will become the reference for the
complaint management formed by
Ministries/Departments, Local Government,
State-owned Enterprises. The product of this
commitment can be in the form of SOP or Complaint
Handling Manual. The existence of these basic
standards will maintain quality standards in handling
Second, the Ministry of Administrative and
Bureaucratic Reform, The Executive Office of the
President and the Ombudsman of the Republic of
Indonesia need to form a task force to provide
technical assistance to the complaints management
unit in K / L, Local Government, and State-owned
Enterprises. Assistance will be adjusted to the level of
existing needs, the scope of which includes the
process of forming a complaint management unit,
LAPOR!-SP4N set-up, capacity building of the
management team, and the evaluation of complaint
handling. In addition to this, it will strengthen the
synergy between the Ministry of Administrative
Reform, The Executive Office of the President and the
Ombudsman of the Republic of Indonesia with
stakeholders in providing assistance to the complaints
management unit.
Third, to ensure that complaints are handled correctly,
the existence of standard standards is not enough. A
more strategic forum is needed, involving policymakers
and strategic stakeholders to evaluate and analyze the
trends of complaints coming in. This forum can also be
positioned as a policy forum because it will use
complaint data as a basis for developing policy
measures to improve public services.
Fourth, the publication of complaints handling status
including the respondent's satisfaction response. This
information is important to be published as part of
public control over the performance of public service
complaint handling. For reporters, this information will
make it easier for them to monitor the status of their
● This commitment will open access to information
about the development of broader complaints
handling to the public, o that it can increase public
participation in monitoring the government.
● Increasing the quality of access to public services
because of improvements in services as the result
of the follow up to complaints so as to encourage
public service accountability.
● Strengthening the synergy between policymaker,
stakeholder and the public in reviewing complaints
data for policy improvement recommendation.
Why is this commitment relevant
to OGP values? ● This commitment is in line with the 5th National
Priority, especially in the "Legal Certainty and
Bureaucratic Reform" Priority Program.
● An assistance team has been established by the
Ministry of Administrative and Bureaucratic
Reform by involving the Ombudsman of the
Republic of Indonesia and The Executive Office of
the President.
● Piloting can be synergized with choices of the
regions that have been accompanied by the
Ministry of Administrative and Bureaucratic
1. Increase LAPOR!-SP4N
penetration in government
institutions (target 500 institutions)
January 2019 December 2019
2. The complaint reports through
LAPOR!-SP4N have been followed
up (target increased by 25%)
January 2020 December 2020
3. Improvement of LAPOR
management performance by gov
institutions (target increased by
September 2020 December 2020

IRM Midterm Status Summary

10. Quality Improvement on Public Service Complaints Resolution through LAPOR!-SP4N

Language of the commitment as it appears in the action plan:

Increasing the numbers of reports and the quality of resolution on Public Service Complaints through LAPOR!-SP4N. The increasing is marked by more public institutions are connected with LAPOR! and LAPOR!-SP4N supervision is categorized as good.


  1. Increase LAPOR!-SP4N penetration in government institutions (target 500 institutions)
  2. The complaint reports through LAPOR!-SP4N have been followed up (target increased by 25%)
  3. Improvement of LAPOR management performance by government institutions (target increased by 15%)

Start Date: January 2019                                                               End Date: December 2020

Context and Objectives

Multiple commitments in Indonesia’s fourth action plan helped ensure the integration of LAPOR! and the National Public Service Complaints Management System (SP4N) into LAPOR!-SP4N. Through those commitments, administration of the LAPOR!-SP4N system was transferred from the President’s Executive Office to the Ministry of Administrative and Bureaucratic Reform. The system saw continued increase in total complaints received and registered users.

During the consultation process, [111] the government identified several challenges to the continued development of LAPOR!-SP4N. All 34 ministries, 97 non-structural institutions, and 302 local governments have been connected to the LAPOR!-SP4N system. [112] However, only 50% comply with standard procedures and consistently respond to complaints. [113] At the same time, LAPOR!-SP4N has continued to see an increase in the number of users and received complaints, 686,840 and 1,228,416 respectively by the end of 2017. [114] Nonetheless, relative to the 143.26 million people with internet access (54.68% of the total population), [115] LAPOR!-SP4N’s penetration among the public is still marginal.

The government also does not have any existing standards that outline how government institutions respond to public complaints. As a result, the government has been inconsistent in responding to public complaints. YAPPIKA-ActionAid, a CSO who co-created this commitment, also noted regression in the performance of LAPOR!-SP4N following the transfer of its management from the President’s Executive Office to the Ministry of Administrative and Bureaucratic Reform. [116] Problems included the Ministry’s lack of capacity in managing public complaints, inadequate infrastructure, and unclear regulations.

Through this commitment, the government aims to integrate 500 additional government institutions into LAPOR!-SP4N, increase higher complaint-response rates by 25%, and enhance the compliance of government institutions with LAPOR!-SP4N standards by 15%. This commitment will encourage more citizens to use LAPOR!-SP4N in monitoring public services and improve government’s responsiveness toward public complaints.

To achieve these objectives, the Ministry of Administrative and Bureaucratic Reform will collaborate with the President’s Executive Office and the Ombudsman’s office to develop a standard procedure for complaint management. This follows recommendations in a previous IRM report [117] highlighting the need for a clear response procedure. To strengthen the capacity and accountability of government institutions in managing complaints, the three offices will form a joint task force to provide technical assistance for ministries, institutions, state-owned enterprises, and local governments.

To further ensure that public complaints effect improved public service delivery, this commitment will establish a strategic forum of government and civil society stakeholders. The forum will evaluate the quality of public service delivery by assessing public complaints and providing data to citizens that can be used to develop better policies. Additionally, as also recommended in the previous IRM report, the government will incorporate a new feature for citizens to evaluate government’s response to their complaints in the form of a satisfaction rating system.

An aspect that was neglected during development of this commitment was the management of public information requests filed by citizens through the LAPOR!-SP4N system. As of December 2017, LAPOR!-SP4N has received a total of 145,573 public information requests, [118] second only to service complaints among all categories of complaints in the system. In response to this, YAPPIKA-ActionAid expressed concerns over the Ministry’s lack of engagement with the Central Information Commission. [119] As the independent authority responsible to ensure compliance with the Information Disclosure Law, the Information Commission could play a pivotal role in ushering improved access to information for citizens related to public service complaints. The Information Commission has also expressed concerns over the government’s lack of engagement with the Commission in resolving information requests on the LAPOR!-SP4N system. [120]

The scope of this commitment reaches multiple stages of the government’s management of complaints. For citizens, there will be a clear mechanism to help them understand how the government responds to their complaints. For government institutions, there will be a clear procedure to respond better to public complaints and to take appropriate actions in response. This will represent a major improvement as there is currently no standard procedure governing how the LAPOR!-SP4N team must manage complaints and what constitutes a “resolved” complaint. At the end of the process, these data will also be used to influence the government’s policies. Overall, if implemented properly, this commitment could transform the way that citizens are able to hold government accountable and effect policy changes.

According to YAPPIKA-ActionAid, [121] LAPOR!-SP4N is flawed in that it does not require government institutions to provide evidence on how they responded to and resolved a complaint. Government institution may mark a complaint as “resolved” as long as they have provided a response to the complaint. Therefore, this commitment to create a clearer mechanism to resolve complaints submitted to the LAPOR!-SP4N system could create a transformative change in its process.

Next Steps

To improve the quality of complaint-management through LAPOR!-SP4N, the government should:

  • Coordinate between the Ministry of Administrative and Bureaucratic Reform, the President’s Executive Office, and the Ombudsman’s office, as well as civil society, to closely monitor the implementation of this commitment;
  • Engage the Information Commission in ensuring transparency of the complaint- management process pursuant to the Public Information Service Law;
  • Collect feedback from government institutions and citizens to identify the challenges that both government and citizens experience in using LAPOR!-SP4N;
  • Develop a standard procedure and detailed complaint-management guidelines for government institutions to respond to public complaints; and
  • Develop a comprehensive strategy with civil society to raise awareness of LAPOR!-SP4N among the public to encourage greater use of the system in monitoring public service delivery.

[111] Open Government Indonesia National Secretariat, “Pembahasan Rencana Aksi Keterbukaan Pemerintah 2018–2020: Peningkatan Kualitas Penyelesaian Pengaduan Pelayanan Publik dalam LAPOR!-SP4N” (2018),

[112] LAPOR!-SP4N, “Sistem Penanganan Pengaduan Pelayanan Publik Nasional” (2017),

[113] Ibid.

[114] Ibid.

[115] Indonesia Internet Service Provider Association, "Penetrasi & Perilaku Pengguna Internet Indonesia 2017" (2017),

[116] Hendrik Rosdinar (YAPPIKA-ActionAid), interview by IRM researcher, 9 Mar. 2019.

[117] Open Government Partnership, “Independent Reporting Mechanism (IRM) Indonesia Progress Report 2016–2017” (2018), 52,

[118] LAPOR!-SP4N, “Sistem Penanganan Pengaduan Pelayanan Publik Nasional.”

[119] Rosdinar, interview.

[120] Aditya Nuriya (Central Information Commission), interview by IRM researcher, 11 Mar. 2019.

[121] Rosdinar, interview.


  1. Platform for Improved Legislative Data and Information

    ID0106, 2018, Capacity Building

  2. Make Legislative Information More Accessible

    ID0107, 2018, E-Government

  3. Improving Documentation and Access to Information on Parliamentary Sessions

    ID0108, 2018, E-Government

  4. Formulation of the Open Parliament Indonesia Roadmap

    ID0109, 2018, Capacity Building

  5. Establishing the Open Parliament Indonesia Institution

    ID0110, 2018, Legislative

  6. Extractives Data Management

    ID0092, 2018, Anti-Corruption

  7. Transparency and Participation in Health Data

    ID0093, 2018, E-Government

  8. Public Service Data

    ID0094, 2018, E-Government

  9. Participatory Education Budget

    ID0095, 2018, Capacity Building

  10. Participatory Village Government Planning

    ID0096, 2018, Capacity Building

  11. Civic Participation in E-Legislation Portal

    ID0097, 2018, E-Government

  12. Election Data Openness

    ID0098, 2018, Access to Information

  13. Health Service Data

    ID0099, 2018, E-Government

  14. Public Consultation Reform

    ID0100, 2018, Capacity Building

  15. LAPOR!-SP4N Quality Improvements

    ID0101, 2018, Capacity Building

  16. Complaint System for Environment

    ID0102, 2018, Anti-Corruption

  17. Government Procurement Transparency

    ID0103, 2018, Anti-Corruption

  18. Strenthening Open Data

    ID0104, 2018, Access to Information

  19. Improvements to Legal Aid

    ID0105, 2018, Access to Justice

  20. Open Government Strategic Plan

    ID0047, 2016,

  21. Public Agency Consultation Guidlines

    ID0048, 2016, Capacity Building

  22. Good Governance Manual and Public Consultations to Reach SDGs

    ID0049, 2016, Capacity Building

  23. Geospatial Information Management

    ID0050, 2016, Capacity Building

  24. Monitoring Public Services by Ombudsman

    ID0051, 2016, E-Government

  25. Ombudsman Overseeing Public Services

    ID0052, 2016, Public Service Delivery

  26. Public Services at Ministry of Education and Culture

    ID0053, 2016, Capacity Building

  27. Public Services at Ministry of Religious Affairs

    ID0054, 2016, Public Service Delivery

  28. Development of LAPOR into SP4N

    ID0055, 2016, Capacity Building

  29. Public Complaints Administration Integration into LAPOR!-SP4N

    ID0056, 2016, Capacity Building

  30. LAPOR!- SP4N as Citizen Aspiration and Complaints Platform

    ID0057, 2016, Capacity Building

  31. 1 Million Complaints Via LAPOR! by 2016

    ID0058, 2016, E-Government

  32. LAPOR! Public Accountability

    ID0059, 2016, Public Participation

  33. Interconnectivity of SOEs to LAPOR!

    ID0060, 2016, Capacity Building

  34. Environment and Forrest Sector Public Complaints

    ID0061, 2016, E-Government

  35. Strengthened Village Governance

    ID0062, 2016, Capacity Building

  36. Public Information Disclosure Through Ministry of Health

    ID0063, 2016, E-Government

  37. Public Information Disclosure Through Ministry of Education and Culture

    ID0064, 2016, E-Government

  38. Public Information Disclosure Through Ministry of Research Technology and Higher Education

    ID0065, 2016, E-Government

  39. Public Information Disclosure at Higher Education Institutions

    ID0066, 2016, E-Government

  40. Budget Transparency Information System

    ID0067, 2016, E-Government

  41. Inter Agency Data Governance

    ID0068, 2016, Capacity Building

  42. Open Data Implementation

    ID0069, 2016, Capacity Building

  43. Public Complaints Channels

    ID0070, 2016, Capacity Building

  44. Information Disclosure at Village Levels

    ID0071, 2016, E-Government

  45. Increase in Number of Open Data

    ID0072, 2016, Access to Information

  46. Improved Public Services

    ID0073, 2016, Capacity Building

  47. Transparency in the Regional Government Budget System

    ID0074, 2016, E-Government

  48. Procurement Disclosure in Bandung

    ID0075, 2016, Anti-Corruption

  49. Enhancing the LAPOR! Application

    ID0076, 2016, E-Government

  50. Public Complaints Services in the City of Bandung

    ID0077, 2016, Public Participation

  51. Information Disclosure on Citizens’ Proposals to DPRD

    ID0078, 2016, E-Government

  52. Greater Public Participation in Disseminating Development Information

    ID0079, 2016, Education

  53. "One Data Indonesia” in Semarang.

    ID0080, 2016, Access to Information

  54. One Data Basis for Semarang

    ID0081, 2016, Access to Information

  55. Enhanced Public Information Disclosure

    ID0082, 2016, E-Government

  56. Public Monitoring of Services in Semarang

    ID0083, 2016, Capacity Building

  57. Access to Information on DPRD

    ID0084, 2016, Capacity Building

  58. Data Governance of DPRD

    ID0085, 2016, Fiscal Openness

  59. Infrastructure for Fublic Information Disclosure

    ID0086, 2016, Capacity Building

  60. Public Information Communications Strategy

    ID0087, 2016, Subnational

  61. Information Through Jakarta.Go.Id Portal

    ID0088, 2016, Capacity Building

  62. Public Services Complaint Channel

    ID0089, 2016, Public Participation

  63. Strengthening of Data Governance

    ID0090, 2016, Access to Information

  64. Public Participation in Development Planning

    ID0091, 2016, E-Government

  65. Strengthening Transparency Infrastructure of Public Bodies

    ID0028, 2014, Public Service Delivery

  66. Strengthening Infrastructure of Central and Local Information Commission

    ID0029, 2014, Capacity Building

  67. Strengthening Institutional and Human Resources Infrastructure for Public Services

    ID0030, 2014, Public Participation

  68. Improve Quality of Openness in Health Services

    ID0031, 2014, Health

  69. Improve Quality of Openness in Education Services

    ID0032, 2014, E-Government

  70. Accelerate Open and Good Governance Practices in Law Enforcement

    ID0033, 2014, E-Government

  71. Accelerate Open and Good Governance Practices in Goods and Services Procurement

    ID0034, 2014, Anti-Corruption

  72. Accelerate Open and Good Governance Practices in Business Development and Investment Sector

    ID0035, 2014, Capacity Building

  73. Accelerate Open and Good Governance Practices in Land Affairs

    ID0036, 2014, Land Rights and Spatial Planning

  74. Accelerate Open and Good Governance Practices in Management of Migrant Workers

    ID0037, 2014, Citizenship & Immigration

  75. Accelerate Open and Good Governance Practices in Hajj Management

    ID0038, 2014, Public Service Delivery

  76. Accelerate Open and Good Governance Practices in Natural Resources Management

    ID0039, 2014, Anti-Corruption

  77. Improve Public Participation in Development Planning

    ID0040, 2014, E-Government

  78. Improve Public Participation in House of Representative and Regional Representative Council

    ID0041, 2014, Legislative

  79. Improve Public Participation in Environmental Preservation

    ID0042, 2014, Environment and Climate

  80. Community Empowerment to Handle Poor Society and People with Disabilities and Special Needs

    ID0043, 2014, Health

  81. Community Empowerment to Support Environmental Sustainability

    ID0044, 2014, Environment and Climate

  82. Community Empowerment to Strengthen Agriculture Sector

    ID0045, 2014, Capacity Building

  83. Community Empowerment to Develop Creative Sector

    ID0046, 2014, E-Government

  84. Motor Vehicle Services

    ID0013, 2013, Infrastructure & Transport

  85. Public School Funding

    ID0014, 2013, Anti-Corruption

  86. Hajj Services: Ministry of Religious Affairs

    ID0015, 2013, Anti-Corruption

  87. Marriage Services: Office of Religious Affairs

    ID0016, 2013, Public Service Delivery

  88. Toll Roads

    ID0017, 2013, Public Service Delivery

  89. Land Affairs Transparency

    ID0018, 2013, E-Government

  90. Forest Management

    ID0019, 2013, Anti-Corruption

  91. Transparency and Accountability in Natural Resources Management Activity

    ID0020, 2013, Access to Information

  92. Oil, Gas, and Mining Revenue Transparency

    ID0021, 2013, Anti-Corruption

  93. Appointments of Information and Documentation Management Officials (PPID) in National Agencies and Enactments of their Standard Operating Procedure

    ID0022, 2013, Access to Information

  94. Starred commitment Formulation of a Working Plan and a Well-Operated Tracking System for Business/Investment Licensing Servies in 10 Provinces and 10 Regencies/Cities

    ID0023, 2013, E-Government

  95. Encouraging the Acceleration of the Operational Formation for Information Services in Local Government through the Formation of Local Government's PPID and its Tools

    ID0024, 2013, Access to Information

  96. Encouraging Comprehensive Implementation of Open Government in Pilot Province/Regency/City

    ID0025, 2013, Subnational

  97. Integration of Performance-Based Budgeting

    ID0026, 2013, Fiscal Openness

  98. Ensuring the Publication of Budget Plan (RKA/DIPA)

    ID0027, 2013, Fiscal Openness

  99. Poverty Reduction

    ID0001, 2011, E-Government

  100. Education Subsidies

    ID0002, 2011, Education

  101. Health Subsidies

    ID0003, 2011, Health

  102. Police

    ID0004, 2011, Dispute Resolution & Legal Assistance

  103. High Corruption Risk

    ID0005, 2011, E-Government

  104. Civil Service Recruitment

    ID0006, 2011, Capacity Building

  105. Land Administration

    ID0007, 2011, E-Government

  106. National Budget Information

    ID0008, 2011, Anti-Corruption

  107. District Budget Information

    ID0009, 2011, Fiscal Openness

  108. e-Procurement

    ID0010, 2011, Anti-Corruption

  109. One-Map Portal

    ID0011, 2011, E-Government

  110. Environmental Openness

    ID0012, 2011, Anti-Corruption

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