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LAPOR!-SP4N Quality Improvements (ID0101)



Action Plan: Indonesia Action Plan 2018-2020

Action Plan Cycle: 2018

Status: Active


Lead Institution: Ministry of Administrative and Bureaucratic Reform

Support Institution(s): Ombudsman RI, YAPPIKA-ActionAid

Policy Areas

Capacity Building, E-Government, Public Participation, Social Accountability

IRM Review

IRM Report: Indonesia Design Report 2018-2020

Starred: Pending IRM Review

Early Results: Pending IRM Review

Design i

Verifiable: Yes

Relevant to OGP Values: Civic Participation , Public Accountability , Technology

Potential Impact:

Implementation i

Completion: Pending IRM Review


January 2019 - December 2020
Commitment Description
Lead implementing
Ministry of Administrative and Bureaucratic Reform
Law of the Republic of Indonesia Number 25/2009 on
Public Services mandates the creation of a national
public service complaint handling system. This
mandate was strengthened through the issued
Presidential Regulation Number 76/2013 on
Management of Public Service Complaints. In 2016,
LAPOR! is confirmed as National Public Service
Complaint Management System (SP4N) based on the
Ministry of Administrative and Bureaucratic Reform
Regulation Number 3/2015. Currently LAPOR! -SP4N
has been connected with 88 K / L, 135 Local
Governments, 128 National Universities and
Coordination of Private Universities (Kopertis), 131
Indonesian Representatives abroad and 116
state-owned enterprises in Indonesia. The existence
of LAPOR! -SP4N began to be widely known by the
public, as seen from the number of complaints coming
in as many as 1,180,609 complaints (as of 2017).
However there are still a number of challenges faced
by LAPOR-SP4N, including (i) the number of reports
being followed up is still low; (ii) the integration
process at the local government level is still slow,
even tends to be only a formality (limited to the
decree) without the support of adequate facilities and
infrastructure; (iii) the response of the LAPOR! -SP4N
manager who has not yet managed to satisfy the
reporter and tends not to solve the problem; (iv) data
of complaints through LAPOR!.
What is the public problem that
the commitment will address?
Increasing the numbers of reports and the quality of
resolution on Public Service Complaints through
LAPOR!-SP4N. The increasing is marked by more
public institutions are connected with LAPOR! and
LAPOR!-SP4N supervision is categorized as good.
What is the commitment?
The challenges faced by LAPOR!-SP4N will be
overcome through a number of strategic commitments
that must be carried out by the Ministry of
Administrative and Bureaucratic Reform, The
Executive Office of the President and the Ombudsman
of the Republic of Indonesia.
First, Ministry of Administrative and Bureaucratic
Reform The Executive Office of the President and the
Ombudsman of the Republic of Indonesia must set a basic standard which will become the reference for the
complaint management formed by
Ministries/Departments, Local Government,
State-owned Enterprises. The product of this
commitment can be in the form of SOP or Complaint
Handling Manual. The existence of these basic
standards will maintain quality standards in handling
Second, the Ministry of Administrative and
Bureaucratic Reform, The Executive Office of the
President and the Ombudsman of the Republic of
Indonesia need to form a task force to provide
technical assistance to the complaints management
unit in K / L, Local Government, and State-owned
Enterprises. Assistance will be adjusted to the level of
existing needs, the scope of which includes the
process of forming a complaint management unit,
LAPOR!-SP4N set-up, capacity building of the
management team, and the evaluation of complaint
handling. In addition to this, it will strengthen the
synergy between the Ministry of Administrative
Reform, The Executive Office of the President and the
Ombudsman of the Republic of Indonesia with
stakeholders in providing assistance to the complaints
management unit.
Third, to ensure that complaints are handled correctly,
the existence of standard standards is not enough. A
more strategic forum is needed, involving policymakers
and strategic stakeholders to evaluate and analyze the
trends of complaints coming in. This forum can also be
positioned as a policy forum because it will use
complaint data as a basis for developing policy
measures to improve public services.
Fourth, the publication of complaints handling status
including the respondent's satisfaction response. This
information is important to be published as part of
public control over the performance of public service
complaint handling. For reporters, this information will
make it easier for them to monitor the status of their
● This commitment will open access to information
about the development of broader complaints
handling to the public, o that it can increase public
participation in monitoring the government.
● Increasing the quality of access to public services
because of improvements in services as the result
of the follow up to complaints so as to encourage
public service accountability.
● Strengthening the synergy between policymaker,
stakeholder and the public in reviewing complaints
data for policy improvement recommendation.
Why is this commitment relevant
to OGP values? ● This commitment is in line with the 5th National
Priority, especially in the "Legal Certainty and
Bureaucratic Reform" Priority Program.
● An assistance team has been established by the
Ministry of Administrative and Bureaucratic
Reform by involving the Ombudsman of the
Republic of Indonesia and The Executive Office of
the President.
● Piloting can be synergized with choices of the
regions that have been accompanied by the
Ministry of Administrative and Bureaucratic
1. Increase LAPOR!-SP4N
penetration in government
institutions (target 500 institutions)
January 2019 December 2019
2. The complaint reports through
LAPOR!-SP4N have been followed
up (target increased by 25%)
January 2020 December 2020
3. Improvement of LAPOR
management performance by gov
institutions (target increased by
September 2020 December 2020

IRM Midterm Status Summary

10. Quality Improvement on Public Service Complaints Resolution through LAPOR!-SP4N

Language of the commitment as it appears in the action plan:

Increasing the numbers of reports and the quality of resolution on Public Service Complaints through LAPOR!-SP4N. The increasing is marked by more public institutions are connected with LAPOR! and LAPOR!-SP4N supervision is categorized as good.


  1. Increase LAPOR!-SP4N penetration in government institutions (target 500 institutions)
  2. The complaint reports through LAPOR!-SP4N have been followed up (target increased by 25%)
  3. Improvement of LAPOR management performance by government institutions (target increased by 15%)

Start Date: January 2019                                                               End Date: December 2020

Context and Objectives

Multiple commitments in Indonesia’s fourth action plan helped ensure the integration of LAPOR! and the National Public Service Complaints Management System (SP4N) into LAPOR!-SP4N. Through those commitments, administration of the LAPOR!-SP4N system was transferred from the President’s Executive Office to the Ministry of Administrative and Bureaucratic Reform. The system saw continued increase in total complaints received and registered users.

During the consultation process, [111] the government identified several challenges to the continued development of LAPOR!-SP4N. All 34 ministries, 97 non-structural institutions, and 302 local governments have been connected to the LAPOR!-SP4N system. [112] However, only 50% comply with standard procedures and consistently respond to complaints. [113] At the same time, LAPOR!-SP4N has continued to see an increase in the number of users and received complaints, 686,840 and 1,228,416 respectively by the end of 2017. [114] Nonetheless, relative to the 143.26 million people with internet access (54.68% of the total population), [115] LAPOR!-SP4N’s penetration among the public is still marginal.

The government also does not have any existing standards that outline how government institutions respond to public complaints. As a result, the government has been inconsistent in responding to public complaints. YAPPIKA-ActionAid, a CSO who co-created this commitment, also noted regression in the performance of LAPOR!-SP4N following the transfer of its management from the President’s Executive Office to the Ministry of Administrative and Bureaucratic Reform. [116] Problems included the Ministry’s lack of capacity in managing public complaints, inadequate infrastructure, and unclear regulations.

Through this commitment, the government aims to integrate 500 additional government institutions into LAPOR!-SP4N, increase higher complaint-response rates by 25%, and enhance the compliance of government institutions with LAPOR!-SP4N standards by 15%. This commitment will encourage more citizens to use LAPOR!-SP4N in monitoring public services and improve government’s responsiveness toward public complaints.

To achieve these objectives, the Ministry of Administrative and Bureaucratic Reform will collaborate with the President’s Executive Office and the Ombudsman’s office to develop a standard procedure for complaint management. This follows recommendations in a previous IRM report [117] highlighting the need for a clear response procedure. To strengthen the capacity and accountability of government institutions in managing complaints, the three offices will form a joint task force to provide technical assistance for ministries, institutions, state-owned enterprises, and local governments.

To further ensure that public complaints effect improved public service delivery, this commitment will establish a strategic forum of government and civil society stakeholders. The forum will evaluate the quality of public service delivery by assessing public complaints and providing data to citizens that can be used to develop better policies. Additionally, as also recommended in the previous IRM report, the government will incorporate a new feature for citizens to evaluate government’s response to their complaints in the form of a satisfaction rating system.

An aspect that was neglected during development of this commitment was the management of public information requests filed by citizens through the LAPOR!-SP4N system. As of December 2017, LAPOR!-SP4N has received a total of 145,573 public information requests, [118] second only to service complaints among all categories of complaints in the system. In response to this, YAPPIKA-ActionAid expressed concerns over the Ministry’s lack of engagement with the Central Information Commission. [119] As the independent authority responsible to ensure compliance with the Information Disclosure Law, the Information Commission could play a pivotal role in ushering improved access to information for citizens related to public service complaints. The Information Commission has also expressed concerns over the government’s lack of engagement with the Commission in resolving information requests on the LAPOR!-SP4N system. [120]

The scope of this commitment reaches multiple stages of the government’s management of complaints. For citizens, there will be a clear mechanism to help them understand how the government responds to their complaints. For government institutions, there will be a clear procedure to respond better to public complaints and to take appropriate actions in response. This will represent a major improvement as there is currently no standard procedure governing how the LAPOR!-SP4N team must manage complaints and what constitutes a “resolved” complaint. At the end of the process, these data will also be used to influence the government’s policies. Overall, if implemented properly, this commitment could transform the way that citizens are able to hold government accountable and effect policy changes.

According to YAPPIKA-ActionAid, [121] LAPOR!-SP4N is flawed in that it does not require government institutions to provide evidence on how they responded to and resolved a complaint. Government institution may mark a complaint as “resolved” as long as they have provided a response to the complaint. Therefore, this commitment to create a clearer mechanism to resolve complaints submitted to the LAPOR!-SP4N system could create a transformative change in its process.

Next Steps

To improve the quality of complaint-management through LAPOR!-SP4N, the government should:

  • Coordinate between the Ministry of Administrative and Bureaucratic Reform, the President’s Executive Office, and the Ombudsman’s office, as well as civil society, to closely monitor the implementation of this commitment;
  • Engage the Information Commission in ensuring transparency of the complaint- management process pursuant to the Public Information Service Law;
  • Collect feedback from government institutions and citizens to identify the challenges that both government and citizens experience in using LAPOR!-SP4N;
  • Develop a standard procedure and detailed complaint-management guidelines for government institutions to respond to public complaints; and
  • Develop a comprehensive strategy with civil society to raise awareness of LAPOR!-SP4N among the public to encourage greater use of the system in monitoring public service delivery.

[111] Open Government Indonesia National Secretariat, “Pembahasan Rencana Aksi Keterbukaan Pemerintah 2018–2020: Peningkatan Kualitas Penyelesaian Pengaduan Pelayanan Publik dalam LAPOR!-SP4N” (2018),

[112] LAPOR!-SP4N, “Sistem Penanganan Pengaduan Pelayanan Publik Nasional” (2017),

[113] Ibid.

[114] Ibid.

[115] Indonesia Internet Service Provider Association, "Penetrasi & Perilaku Pengguna Internet Indonesia 2017" (2017),

[116] Hendrik Rosdinar (YAPPIKA-ActionAid), interview by IRM researcher, 9 Mar. 2019.

[117] Open Government Partnership, “Independent Reporting Mechanism (IRM) Indonesia Progress Report 2016–2017” (2018), 52,

[118] LAPOR!-SP4N, “Sistem Penanganan Pengaduan Pelayanan Publik Nasional.”

[119] Rosdinar, interview.

[120] Aditya Nuriya (Central Information Commission), interview by IRM researcher, 11 Mar. 2019.

[121] Rosdinar, interview.


  1. Disclose public procurement and open contract information

    ID0111, 2020, Anti-Corruption

  2. Increase responsiveness to public service complaints

    ID0112, 2020, E-Government

  3. Implement One Data Indonesia policy

    ID0113, 2020, Access to Information

  4. Pilot community-based evaluation for development programs

    ID0114, 2020, Local Commitments

  5. Increase public service access for marginalized groups

    ID0115, 2020, Gender

  6. Accessibility for persons with disabilities in judicial process

    ID0116, 2020, Access to Justice

  7. Develop open legal aid information portal

    ID0117, 2020, Access to Justice

  8. Expand capacity of legal aid services

    ID0118, 2020, Access to Justice

  9. Provide legal aid to vulnerable groups

    ID0119, 2020, Access to Justice

  10. Ensure access to legal aid information

    ID0120, 2020, Access to Information

  11. Make social welfare data more transparent

    ID0121, 2020, Access to Information

  12. Pilot social accountability approach in villages

    ID0122, 2020, Capacity Building

  13. Provide open election data

    ID0123, 2020, Access to Information

  14. Create digital platform for female health services

    ID0124, 2020, E-Government

  15. Disclose information related to COVID-19 budget

    ID0125, 2020, E-Government

  16. Involve civil society in Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC) Bill

    ID0126, 2020, Access to Justice

  17. Strengthen and open access to beneficial ownership data

    ID0127, 2020, Anti-Corruption

  18. Promote civic space in restorative justice efforts

    ID0128, 2020, Access to Justice

  19. Improve capacity to promote public participation in legislative process

    ID0129, 2020, Capacity Building

  20. Create digital platform for open parliament data

    ID0130, 2020, Access to Information

  21. Provide public access to information on members of parliament

    ID0131, 2020, Capacity Building

  22. Create forums for dialogue between parliament members and citizens

    ID0132, 2020, Open Parliaments

  23. Use journalists and media to promote innovations in parliamentary openness

    ID0133, 2020, E-Government

  24. Institutionalize and increase capacity of Open Parliament Indonesia

    ID0134, 2020, Capacity Building

  25. Platform for Improved Legislative Data and Information

    ID0106, 2018, Capacity Building

  26. Make Legislative Information More Accessible

    ID0107, 2018, E-Government

  27. Improving Documentation and Access to Information on Parliamentary Sessions

    ID0108, 2018, E-Government

  28. Formulation of the Open Parliament Indonesia Roadmap

    ID0109, 2018, Capacity Building

  29. Establishing the Open Parliament Indonesia Institution

    ID0110, 2018, Open Parliaments

  30. Extractives Data Management

    ID0092, 2018, Anti-Corruption

  31. Transparency and Participation in Health Data

    ID0093, 2018, E-Government

  32. Public Service Data

    ID0094, 2018, E-Government

  33. Participatory Education Budget

    ID0095, 2018, Capacity Building

  34. Participatory Village Government Planning

    ID0096, 2018, Capacity Building

  35. Civic Participation in E-Legislation Portal

    ID0097, 2018, E-Government

  36. Election Data Openness

    ID0098, 2018, Access to Information

  37. Health Service Data

    ID0099, 2018, E-Government

  38. Public Consultation Reform

    ID0100, 2018, Capacity Building

  39. LAPOR!-SP4N Quality Improvements

    ID0101, 2018, Capacity Building

  40. Complaint System for Environment

    ID0102, 2018, Anti-Corruption

  41. Government Procurement Transparency

    ID0103, 2018, Anti-Corruption

  42. Strenthening Open Data

    ID0104, 2018, Access to Information

  43. Improvements to Legal Aid

    ID0105, 2018, Access to Justice

  44. Open Government Strategic Plan

    ID0047, 2016, Public Participation

  45. Public Agency Consultation Guidlines

    ID0048, 2016, Capacity Building

  46. Good Governance Manual and Public Consultations to Reach SDGs

    ID0049, 2016, Capacity Building

  47. Geospatial Information Management

    ID0050, 2016, Capacity Building

  48. Monitoring Public Services by Ombudsman

    ID0051, 2016, E-Government

  49. Ombudsman Overseeing Public Services

    ID0052, 2016,

  50. Public Services at Ministry of Education and Culture

    ID0053, 2016, Capacity Building

  51. Public Services at Ministry of Religious Affairs

    ID0054, 2016,

  52. Development of LAPOR into SP4N

    ID0055, 2016, Capacity Building

  53. Public Complaints Administration Integration into LAPOR!-SP4N

    ID0056, 2016, Capacity Building

  54. LAPOR!- SP4N as Citizen Aspiration and Complaints Platform

    ID0057, 2016, Capacity Building

  55. 1 Million Complaints Via LAPOR! by 2016

    ID0058, 2016, E-Government

  56. LAPOR! Public Accountability

    ID0059, 2016, Public Participation

  57. Interconnectivity of SOEs to LAPOR!

    ID0060, 2016, Capacity Building

  58. Environment and Forrest Sector Public Complaints

    ID0061, 2016, E-Government

  59. Strengthened Village Governance

    ID0062, 2016, Capacity Building

  60. Public Information Disclosure Through Ministry of Health

    ID0063, 2016, E-Government

  61. Public Information Disclosure Through Ministry of Education and Culture

    ID0064, 2016, E-Government

  62. Public Information Disclosure Through Ministry of Research Technology and Higher Education

    ID0065, 2016, E-Government

  63. Public Information Disclosure at Higher Education Institutions

    ID0066, 2016, E-Government

  64. Budget Transparency Information System

    ID0067, 2016, E-Government

  65. Inter Agency Data Governance

    ID0068, 2016, Capacity Building

  66. Open Data Implementation

    ID0069, 2016, Capacity Building

  67. Public Complaints Channels

    ID0070, 2016, Capacity Building

  68. Information Disclosure at Village Levels

    ID0071, 2016, E-Government

  69. Increase in Number of Open Data

    ID0072, 2016, Access to Information

  70. Improved Public Services

    ID0073, 2016, Capacity Building

  71. Transparency in the Regional Government Budget System

    ID0074, 2016, E-Government

  72. Procurement Disclosure in Bandung

    ID0075, 2016, Anti-Corruption

  73. Enhancing the LAPOR! Application

    ID0076, 2016, E-Government

  74. Public Complaints Services in the City of Bandung

    ID0077, 2016, Local Commitments

  75. Information Disclosure on Citizens’ Proposals to DPRD

    ID0078, 2016, E-Government

  76. Greater Public Participation in Disseminating Development Information

    ID0079, 2016, Education

  77. "One Data Indonesia” in Semarang.

    ID0080, 2016, Access to Information

  78. One Data Basis for Semarang

    ID0081, 2016, Access to Information

  79. Enhanced Public Information Disclosure

    ID0082, 2016, E-Government

  80. Public Monitoring of Services in Semarang

    ID0083, 2016, Capacity Building

  81. Access to Information on DPRD

    ID0084, 2016, Capacity Building

  82. Data Governance of DPRD

    ID0085, 2016, Fiscal Openness

  83. Infrastructure for Fublic Information Disclosure

    ID0086, 2016, Capacity Building

  84. Public Information Communications Strategy

    ID0087, 2016, Local Commitments

  85. Information Through Jakarta.Go.Id Portal

    ID0088, 2016, Capacity Building

  86. Public Services Complaint Channel

    ID0089, 2016, Local Commitments

  87. Strengthening of Data Governance

    ID0090, 2016, Access to Information

  88. Public Participation in Development Planning

    ID0091, 2016, E-Government

  89. Strengthening Transparency Infrastructure of Public Bodies

    ID0028, 2014,

  90. Strengthening Infrastructure of Central and Local Information Commission

    ID0029, 2014, Capacity Building

  91. Strengthening Institutional and Human Resources Infrastructure for Public Services

    ID0030, 2014, Public Participation

  92. Improve Quality of Openness in Health Services

    ID0031, 2014, Health

  93. Improve Quality of Openness in Education Services

    ID0032, 2014, E-Government

  94. Accelerate Open and Good Governance Practices in Law Enforcement

    ID0033, 2014, E-Government

  95. Accelerate Open and Good Governance Practices in Goods and Services Procurement

    ID0034, 2014, Anti-Corruption

  96. Accelerate Open and Good Governance Practices in Business Development and Investment Sector

    ID0035, 2014, Capacity Building

  97. Accelerate Open and Good Governance Practices in Land Affairs

    ID0036, 2014, Land Rights & Spatial Planning

  98. Accelerate Open and Good Governance Practices in Management of Migrant Workers

    ID0037, 2014, Citizenship & Immigration

  99. Accelerate Open and Good Governance Practices in Hajj Management

    ID0038, 2014,

  100. Accelerate Open and Good Governance Practices in Natural Resources Management

    ID0039, 2014, Anti-Corruption

  101. Improve Public Participation in Development Planning

    ID0040, 2014, E-Government

  102. Improve Public Participation in House of Representative and Regional Representative Council

    ID0041, 2014, Open Parliaments

  103. Improve Public Participation in Environmental Preservation

    ID0042, 2014, Environment and Climate

  104. Community Empowerment to Handle Poor Society and People with Disabilities and Special Needs

    ID0043, 2014, Health

  105. Community Empowerment to Support Environmental Sustainability

    ID0044, 2014, Environment and Climate

  106. Community Empowerment to Strengthen Agriculture Sector

    ID0045, 2014, Capacity Building

  107. Community Empowerment to Develop Creative Sector

    ID0046, 2014, E-Government

  108. Motor Vehicle Services

    ID0013, 2013, Infrastructure & Transport

  109. Public School Funding

    ID0014, 2013, Anti-Corruption

  110. Hajj Services: Ministry of Religious Affairs

    ID0015, 2013, Anti-Corruption

  111. Marriage Services: Office of Religious Affairs

    ID0016, 2013,

  112. Toll Roads

    ID0017, 2013,

  113. Land Affairs Transparency

    ID0018, 2013, E-Government

  114. Forest Management

    ID0019, 2013, Anti-Corruption

  115. Transparency and Accountability in Natural Resources Management Activity

    ID0020, 2013, Access to Information

  116. Oil, Gas, and Mining Revenue Transparency

    ID0021, 2013, Anti-Corruption

  117. Appointments of Information and Documentation Management Officials (PPID) in National Agencies and Enactments of their Standard Operating Procedure

    ID0022, 2013, Access to Information

  118. Starred commitment Formulation of a Working Plan and a Well-Operated Tracking System for Business/Investment Licensing Servies in 10 Provinces and 10 Regencies/Cities

    ID0023, 2013, E-Government

  119. Encouraging the Acceleration of the Operational Formation for Information Services in Local Government through the Formation of Local Government's PPID and its Tools

    ID0024, 2013, Access to Information

  120. Encouraging Comprehensive Implementation of Open Government in Pilot Province/Regency/City

    ID0025, 2013, Local Commitments

  121. Integration of Performance-Based Budgeting

    ID0026, 2013, Fiscal Openness

  122. Ensuring the Publication of Budget Plan (RKA/DIPA)

    ID0027, 2013, Fiscal Openness

  123. Poverty Reduction

    ID0001, 2011, E-Government

  124. Education Subsidies

    ID0002, 2011, Education

  125. Health Subsidies

    ID0003, 2011, Health

  126. Police

    ID0004, 2011, Access to Justice

  127. High Corruption Risk

    ID0005, 2011, E-Government

  128. Civil Service Recruitment

    ID0006, 2011, Capacity Building

  129. Land Administration

    ID0007, 2011, E-Government

  130. National Budget Information

    ID0008, 2011, Anti-Corruption

  131. District Budget Information

    ID0009, 2011, Fiscal Openness

  132. e-Procurement

    ID0010, 2011, Anti-Corruption

  133. One-Map Portal

    ID0011, 2011, E-Government

  134. Environmental Openness

    ID0012, 2011, Anti-Corruption

Open Government Partnership