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Indonesia

Election Data Openness (ID0098)

Overview

At-a-Glance

Action Plan: Indonesia Action Plan 2018-2020

Action Plan Cycle: 2018

Status: Active

Institutions

Lead Institution: National Election Commission (NEC)

Support Institution(s): 1. Ministry of Home Affairs 2. Ministry of National Development and Planning 3. Election Supervisory Body, Association for Election and Democracy (Perdulem)

Policy Areas

Access to Information, Anti-Corruption, E-Government, Open Data, Political Integrity, Sustainable Development Goals

IRM Review

IRM Report: Indonesia Design Report 2018-2020

Starred: Pending IRM Review

Early Results: Pending IRM Review

Design i

Verifiable: Yes

Relevant to OGP Values: Access to Information , Technology

Potential Impact:

Implementation i

Completion: Pending IRM Review

Description

January 2019 - December 2020
Commitment Description
Lead implementing
agency/actor
National Election Commission (NEC)
Indonesia is known as one of the biggest democratic
countries where everyone has the right to elect their
representative and the head of each government
level. There are two types of election which are the
national and regional election. The election
implementation is mandated to the National Election
Commission (NEC). Regarding the important role of
NEC, it has some innovation in executing its duties.
For instance, it publishes electoral data in
http://infopemilu.kpu.go.id portal. However, the data in
the portal is not completely available and limited only
in recent years.
Furthermore, it also occurs for the information about
legislative candidates profile, president candidates
profile and recapitulation of vote counting. That
information can be access in the various web portal,
such as http://infopemilu.kpu.go.id and
https://www.kpu.go.id/. Therefore, to encourage
transparency in the election process, NEC have to
integrate the data through open access.
What is the public problem that
the commitment will address?
The development of integrated electoral data with One
Data aims to adopt the principle of One Data which are
accessible, reusable, and able to be re-distributed by
everyone. The data could be downloaded in an open
format (e.g: CSV, XLS, XML, JSON). In result, the One
Data principles facilitate people to access government
data. The commitment also encourages publishing the
vote counting result, legislative and executive
candidates profile in one NEC official portal. So that,
the people can find the information easily.
What is the commitment?
27 Indonesia Open Government Partnership National Action Plan 2018-2020
To solve the problems above, the commitments tries to
simplify the access of data and information regarding
the election process. Moreover, this commitment is
addressed in two areas which are implementing the
principles of One Data and publishing the vote
counting result.
Therefore, the accessible data will enhance the
transparency of election process both in national and
regional. The development of the electronic system will
also ensure the accuracy, security, and trust of the
people as well as reduce the possibility of fraud during
the election.
How will the commitment
contribute to solve the public
problem? The commitment shows transparency which is one of
the values of Open Government Partnership (OGP). It
is related to the openness quality of public information
and people access the information. In this case,
transparency is shown by integrating the election data
into One Data Portal Indonesia that can facilitate
people to access its data to create a better and more
reliable election.
Why is this commitment relevant
to OGP values?
The commitment is also aligned with achievement
effort of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)
Number 16: “Promote peaceful and inclusive societies
for sustainable development, provide access to justice
for all and effective, accountable and inclusive
institution at all levels”, especially on target 16.6:
“Develop effective, accountable and transparent
institutions at all levels”. Because this commitment is
expected to realize the openness in the national and
regional election in Indonesia, then the integrated
election data can support sustainable development in
the country. Milestone Activity with a verifiable
deliverable
Start Date: End Date:
1. Publication of data on National
Election 2019 voting results at
polling stations online at the official
NEC portal
April 2019 December 2019
2. Integration of data election at one
official NEC portal. This means that
the integration of two portals
(http://infopemilu.kpu.go.id and
https://www.kpu.go.id/) to provide
one portal for election data.
January 2019 December 2019
Contact information
Other Actors
Involved
State actors
involved
1. Ministry of Home Affairs
2. Ministry of National Development and Planning
3. Election Supervisory Body
CSOs, private
sector, multilaterals,
working groups
Association for Election and Democracy (Perludem)
28
3. Publication of data on Regional
Election 2020 voting results at
polling stations online at the official
NEC portal
September 2020 December 2020
Indonesia Open Government Partnership National Action Plan 2018-2020
4. The availability of data election
information in One Data Portal
June 2019 December 2020

IRM Midterm Status Summary

7. Data Integration to Increase Openness in the Management of National Election and Regional Election

Language of the commitment as it appears in the action plan:

The development of integrated electoral data with One Data aims to adopt the principle of One Data which are accessible, reusable, and able to be re-distributed by everyone. The data could be downloaded in an open format (e.g. CSV, XLS, XML, JSON). In result, the One Data principles facilitate people to access government data. The commitment also encourages publishing the vote counting result, legislative and executive candidates profile in one NEC official portal. So that, the people can find the information easily.

Milestones:

  1. Publication of data on National Election 2019 voting results at polling stations online at the official NEC portal.
  2. Integration of data election at one official NEC portal. This means that the integration of two portals (kpu.go.id and kpu.go.id) to provide one portal for election data.
  3. Publication of data on Regional Election 2020 voting results at polling stations online at the official NEC portal.
  4. The availability of data election information in One Data Portal.

Start Date: January 2019                                                               End Date: December 2020

Context and Objectives

General elections in Indonesia include the elections of the president and vice president, members of the House of Representatives (DPR), the Regional Representative Council (DPD), as well as Local Peoples Representative Council (DPRD) at the provincial and city and regency levels. In addition, each province, city, and regency across the country also conducts Local Elections (Pilkada) where voters vote for governor, mayor, or regent in accordance with their voter registration.

The General Elections Commission (KPU) is responsible for organizing each of these elections with the support from local offices. As such, the KPU plays a pivotal role in safeguarding the democratic process in Indonesia by ensuring fair and open elections. In this commitment, the government aims to improve public access to elections data by integrating the existing data portals with the One Data Indonesia data.go.id portal. By integrating elections data onto the One Data portal, the government hopes to make navigation easier for citizens.

Currently, the KPU does not have a centralized elections data portal and does not have consistent data standards. Some data are available on the infopemilu.kpu.go.id portal, while some datasets are available on the kpu.go.id portal. For example, voters can find their voting location on both the infopemilu.kpu.go.id [86] and the lindungihakpilihmu.kpu.go.id [87]. However, only the kpu.go.id site provides voters with information on how to change their voting location. Additionally, beyond these two portals, elections data are stored across a variety of other websites.

As noted by a researcher from the Association for Elections and Democracy (Perludem), [88] the KPU stores its data on an offline server and manually updates online portals as opposed to storing data on an online server with real-time updates. This practice, according to Perludem, [89] threatens the integrity of the elections data that are publicly available as it leaves room for human errors and time gaps between the offline and online databases.

Through this commitment, the KPU aims to integrate all datasets on the two portals (infopemilu.kpu.go.id and kpu.go.id) in a centralized data portal. By doing so, the KPU improves public access to information since it allows citizens to access elections data from a single source. Additionally, a centralized portal allows the KPU to be more consistent in its data collection, disclosure, publishing, and integrity.

At the same time, Perludem noted that the KPU’s leadership has shown a strong commitment in opening up elections data. [90] For example, the KPU signed a memorandum of understanding with civil society organizations to disclose its application program interface (API) to allow citizens to monitor the transparency of elections. However, a transition in the KPU’s leadership has resulted in failure to disclose this API data. As a result, civil society groups have had to manually source elections data. [91]

Another problem with the KPU’s current elections data is the lack of data standards enforcement. Legislative candidates’ data, for example, are sourced from documents submitted by candidates themselves through the silon.kpu.go.id platform accessible only by registered legislative candidates. Consequently, data of legislative candidates on the portal vary in details and therefore cannot be used as the definitive source for information on track records, expertise, and experience that voters need in order to make informed decisions during elections process. In an interview with the IRM researcher, however, Perludem expressed concerns over the unclear data standards used in collecting and disclosing elections data. [92] It is also important to develop a regulation or renew Law No. 7/2017 on Elections [93] to mandate disclosure of elections data in accordance with the One Data Indonesia standard. This can be the entry point for the KPU to significantly improve its elections data governance to be more consistent with international open data standards: availability of data as a whole in convenient and modifiable formats, permits to reuse and redistribute data that are machine-readable, and universal access to use, reuse, and redistribute the data. [94]

Next Steps

The KPU oversees elections. To provide citizens with access to reliable and verifiable elections data, the KPU should adopt a clear data disclosure mechanism. To avoid recurring problems in making elections data accessible due to leadership transitions, the KPU also needs to institutionalize elections data disclosure through regulation. Thus, the practice would be more consistent regardless of any changes in leadership.

The KPU could also develop the consolidated portal to facilitate citizen participation via voting and monitor election results. For example, the KPU could enable voters to update their personal data, request a change in voting location, report violations of election regulation, file complaints of campaign misconduct, etc. Currently, all of these administrative procedures can only be done in person, limiting the opportunities of some citizens to participate in elections, such as the case with the lindungihakpilihmu.kpu.go.id portal which can be used to check a voter’s registration status, but requires physical visit to the nearest KPU office to file data update request. By taking these measures, the KPU could potentially remove barriers that prevent citizens from using their voting rights and increase participation in elections.

[86] General Elections Commission, “Cari Pemilih” (accessed Mar. 2019), https://infopemilu.kpu.go.id/pilpres2019/pemilih/cari-pemilih.

[87] General Elections Commission, “Lindungi Hak Pilihmu” (accessed Mar. 2019), https://lindungihakpilihmu.kpu.go.id.

[88] Maharddhika (Association for Elections and Democracy), interview by IRM researcher, 19 Mar. 2019.

[89] Ibid.

[90] Ibid.

[91] Ibid.

[92] Ibid.

[93] Government of Indonesia, "Undang-Undang No. 7/2017 tentang Pemilihan Umum" (2017), https://rumahpemilu.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/UU-No.7-Tahun-2017-tentang-Pemilu.pdf.

[94] Open Knowledge Foundation, “What is Open” (accessed Jun. 2020), https://okfn.org/opendata.


Commitments

  1. Disclose public procurement and open contract information

    ID0111, 2020, Anti-Corruption

  2. Increase responsiveness to public service complaints

    ID0112, 2020, E-Government

  3. Implement One Data Indonesia policy

    ID0113, 2020, Access to Information

  4. Pilot community-based evaluation for development programs

    ID0114, 2020, Local Commitments

  5. Increase public service access for marginalized groups

    ID0115, 2020, Health

  6. Accessibility for persons with disabilities in judicial process

    ID0116, 2020, Access to Justice

  7. Develop open legal aid information portal

    ID0117, 2020, Access to Justice

  8. Expand capacity of legal aid services

    ID0118, 2020, Access to Justice

  9. Provide legal aid to vulnerable groups

    ID0119, 2020, Access to Justice

  10. Ensure access to legal aid information

    ID0120, 2020, Access to Information

  11. Make social welfare data more transparent

    ID0121, 2020, Access to Information

  12. Pilot social accountability approach in villages

    ID0122, 2020, Capacity Building

  13. Provide open election data

    ID0123, 2020, Access to Information

  14. Create digital platform for female health services

    ID0124, 2020, E-Government

  15. Disclose information related to COVID-19 budget

    ID0125, 2020, E-Government

  16. Involve civil society in Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC) Bill

    ID0126, 2020, Access to Justice

  17. Strengthen and open access to beneficial ownership data

    ID0127, 2020, Anti-Corruption

  18. Promote civic space in restorative justice efforts

    ID0128, 2020, Civic Space

  19. Improve capacity to promote public participation in legislative process

    ID0129, 2020, Capacity Building

  20. Create digital platform for open parliament data

    ID0130, 2020, Access to Information

  21. Provide public access to information on members of parliament

    ID0131, 2020, Capacity Building

  22. Create forums for dialogue between parliament members and citizens

    ID0132, 2020, Open Parliaments

  23. Use journalists and media to promote innovations in parliamentary openness

    ID0133, 2020, E-Government

  24. Institutionalize and increase capacity of Open Parliament Indonesia

    ID0134, 2020, Capacity Building

  25. Platform for Improved Legislative Data and Information

    ID0106, 2018, Capacity Building

  26. Make Legislative Information More Accessible

    ID0107, 2018, E-Government

  27. Improving Documentation and Access to Information on Parliamentary Sessions

    ID0108, 2018, E-Government

  28. Formulation of the Open Parliament Indonesia Roadmap

    ID0109, 2018, Capacity Building

  29. Establishing the Open Parliament Indonesia Institution

    ID0110, 2018, Open Parliaments

  30. Extractives Data Management

    ID0092, 2018, Anti-Corruption

  31. Transparency and Participation in Health Data

    ID0093, 2018, E-Government

  32. Public Service Data

    ID0094, 2018, E-Government

  33. Participatory Education Budget

    ID0095, 2018, Capacity Building

  34. Participatory Village Government Planning

    ID0096, 2018, Capacity Building

  35. Civic Participation in E-Legislation Portal

    ID0097, 2018, E-Government

  36. Election Data Openness

    ID0098, 2018, Access to Information

  37. Health Service Data

    ID0099, 2018, E-Government

  38. Public Consultation Reform

    ID0100, 2018, Capacity Building

  39. LAPOR!-SP4N Quality Improvements

    ID0101, 2018, Capacity Building

  40. Complaint System for Environment

    ID0102, 2018, Anti-Corruption

  41. Government Procurement Transparency

    ID0103, 2018, Anti-Corruption

  42. Strenthening Open Data

    ID0104, 2018, Access to Information

  43. Improvements to Legal Aid

    ID0105, 2018, Access to Justice

  44. Open Government Strategic Plan

    ID0047, 2016, Public Participation

  45. Public Agency Consultation Guidlines

    ID0048, 2016, Capacity Building

  46. Good Governance Manual and Public Consultations to Reach SDGs

    ID0049, 2016, Capacity Building

  47. Geospatial Information Management

    ID0050, 2016, Capacity Building

  48. Monitoring Public Services by Ombudsman

    ID0051, 2016, E-Government

  49. Ombudsman Overseeing Public Services

    ID0052, 2016,

  50. Public Services at Ministry of Education and Culture

    ID0053, 2016, Capacity Building

  51. Public Services at Ministry of Religious Affairs

    ID0054, 2016,

  52. Development of LAPOR into SP4N

    ID0055, 2016, Capacity Building

  53. Public Complaints Administration Integration into LAPOR!-SP4N

    ID0056, 2016, Capacity Building

  54. LAPOR!- SP4N as Citizen Aspiration and Complaints Platform

    ID0057, 2016, Capacity Building

  55. 1 Million Complaints Via LAPOR! by 2016

    ID0058, 2016, E-Government

  56. LAPOR! Public Accountability

    ID0059, 2016, Public Participation

  57. Interconnectivity of SOEs to LAPOR!

    ID0060, 2016, Capacity Building

  58. Environment and Forrest Sector Public Complaints

    ID0061, 2016, E-Government

  59. Strengthened Village Governance

    ID0062, 2016, Capacity Building

  60. Public Information Disclosure Through Ministry of Health

    ID0063, 2016, E-Government

  61. Public Information Disclosure Through Ministry of Education and Culture

    ID0064, 2016, E-Government

  62. Public Information Disclosure Through Ministry of Research Technology and Higher Education

    ID0065, 2016, E-Government

  63. Public Information Disclosure at Higher Education Institutions

    ID0066, 2016, E-Government

  64. Budget Transparency Information System

    ID0067, 2016, E-Government

  65. Inter Agency Data Governance

    ID0068, 2016, Capacity Building

  66. Open Data Implementation

    ID0069, 2016, Capacity Building

  67. Public Complaints Channels

    ID0070, 2016, Capacity Building

  68. Information Disclosure at Village Levels

    ID0071, 2016, E-Government

  69. Increase in Number of Open Data

    ID0072, 2016, Access to Information

  70. Improved Public Services

    ID0073, 2016, Capacity Building

  71. Transparency in the Regional Government Budget System

    ID0074, 2016, E-Government

  72. Procurement Disclosure in Bandung

    ID0075, 2016, Anti-Corruption

  73. Enhancing the LAPOR! Application

    ID0076, 2016, E-Government

  74. Public Complaints Services in the City of Bandung

    ID0077, 2016, Local Commitments

  75. Information Disclosure on Citizens’ Proposals to DPRD

    ID0078, 2016, E-Government

  76. Greater Public Participation in Disseminating Development Information

    ID0079, 2016, Education

  77. "One Data Indonesia” in Semarang.

    ID0080, 2016, Access to Information

  78. One Data Basis for Semarang

    ID0081, 2016, Access to Information

  79. Enhanced Public Information Disclosure

    ID0082, 2016, E-Government

  80. Public Monitoring of Services in Semarang

    ID0083, 2016, Capacity Building

  81. Access to Information on DPRD

    ID0084, 2016, Capacity Building

  82. Data Governance of DPRD

    ID0085, 2016, Fiscal Openness

  83. Infrastructure for Fublic Information Disclosure

    ID0086, 2016, Capacity Building

  84. Public Information Communications Strategy

    ID0087, 2016, Local Commitments

  85. Information Through Jakarta.Go.Id Portal

    ID0088, 2016, Capacity Building

  86. Public Services Complaint Channel

    ID0089, 2016, Local Commitments

  87. Strengthening of Data Governance

    ID0090, 2016, Access to Information

  88. Public Participation in Development Planning

    ID0091, 2016, E-Government

  89. Strengthening Transparency Infrastructure of Public Bodies

    ID0028, 2014,

  90. Strengthening Infrastructure of Central and Local Information Commission

    ID0029, 2014, Capacity Building

  91. Strengthening Institutional and Human Resources Infrastructure for Public Services

    ID0030, 2014, Public Participation

  92. Improve Quality of Openness in Health Services

    ID0031, 2014, Health

  93. Improve Quality of Openness in Education Services

    ID0032, 2014, E-Government

  94. Accelerate Open and Good Governance Practices in Law Enforcement

    ID0033, 2014, E-Government

  95. Accelerate Open and Good Governance Practices in Goods and Services Procurement

    ID0034, 2014, Anti-Corruption

  96. Accelerate Open and Good Governance Practices in Business Development and Investment Sector

    ID0035, 2014, Capacity Building

  97. Accelerate Open and Good Governance Practices in Land Affairs

    ID0036, 2014, Land Rights & Spatial Planning

  98. Accelerate Open and Good Governance Practices in Management of Migrant Workers

    ID0037, 2014, Citizenship & Immigration

  99. Accelerate Open and Good Governance Practices in Hajj Management

    ID0038, 2014,

  100. Accelerate Open and Good Governance Practices in Natural Resources Management

    ID0039, 2014, Anti-Corruption

  101. Improve Public Participation in Development Planning

    ID0040, 2014, E-Government

  102. Improve Public Participation in House of Representative and Regional Representative Council

    ID0041, 2014, Open Parliaments

  103. Improve Public Participation in Environmental Preservation

    ID0042, 2014, Environment and Climate

  104. Community Empowerment to Handle Poor Society and People with Disabilities and Special Needs

    ID0043, 2014, Health

  105. Community Empowerment to Support Environmental Sustainability

    ID0044, 2014, Environment and Climate

  106. Community Empowerment to Strengthen Agriculture Sector

    ID0045, 2014, Capacity Building

  107. Community Empowerment to Develop Creative Sector

    ID0046, 2014, E-Government

  108. Motor Vehicle Services

    ID0013, 2013, Infrastructure & Transport

  109. Public School Funding

    ID0014, 2013, Anti-Corruption

  110. Hajj Services: Ministry of Religious Affairs

    ID0015, 2013, Anti-Corruption

  111. Marriage Services: Office of Religious Affairs

    ID0016, 2013,

  112. Toll Roads

    ID0017, 2013,

  113. Land Affairs Transparency

    ID0018, 2013, E-Government

  114. Forest Management

    ID0019, 2013, Anti-Corruption

  115. Transparency and Accountability in Natural Resources Management Activity

    ID0020, 2013, Access to Information

  116. Oil, Gas, and Mining Revenue Transparency

    ID0021, 2013, Anti-Corruption

  117. Appointments of Information and Documentation Management Officials (PPID) in National Agencies and Enactments of their Standard Operating Procedure

    ID0022, 2013, Access to Information

  118. Starred commitment Formulation of a Working Plan and a Well-Operated Tracking System for Business/Investment Licensing Servies in 10 Provinces and 10 Regencies/Cities

    ID0023, 2013, E-Government

  119. Encouraging the Acceleration of the Operational Formation for Information Services in Local Government through the Formation of Local Government's PPID and its Tools

    ID0024, 2013, Access to Information

  120. Encouraging Comprehensive Implementation of Open Government in Pilot Province/Regency/City

    ID0025, 2013, Local Commitments

  121. Integration of Performance-Based Budgeting

    ID0026, 2013, Fiscal Openness

  122. Ensuring the Publication of Budget Plan (RKA/DIPA)

    ID0027, 2013, Fiscal Openness

  123. Poverty Reduction

    ID0001, 2011, E-Government

  124. Education Subsidies

    ID0002, 2011, Education

  125. Health Subsidies

    ID0003, 2011, Health

  126. Police

    ID0004, 2011, Access to Justice

  127. High Corruption Risk

    ID0005, 2011, E-Government

  128. Civil Service Recruitment

    ID0006, 2011, Capacity Building

  129. Land Administration

    ID0007, 2011, E-Government

  130. National Budget Information

    ID0008, 2011, Anti-Corruption

  131. District Budget Information

    ID0009, 2011, Fiscal Openness

  132. e-Procurement

    ID0010, 2011, Anti-Corruption

  133. One-Map Portal

    ID0011, 2011, E-Government

  134. Environmental Openness

    ID0012, 2011, Anti-Corruption

Open Government Partnership