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Indonesia

Election Data Openness (ID0098)

Overview

At-a-Glance

Action Plan: Indonesia Action Plan 2018-2020

Action Plan Cycle: 2018

Status: Active

Institutions

Lead Institution: National Election Commission (NEC)

Support Institution(s): 1. Ministry of Home Affairs 2. Ministry of National Development and Planning 3. Election Supervisory Body, Association for Election and Democracy (Perdulem)

Policy Areas

Access to Information, E-Government, Open Data, Political Integrity, Sustainable Development Goals

IRM Review

IRM Report: Indonesia Design Report 2018-2020

Starred: Pending IRM Review

Early Results: Pending IRM Review

Design i

Verifiable: Yes

Relevant to OGP Values: Access to Information , Technology

Potential Impact:

Implementation i

Completion: Pending IRM Review

Description

January 2019 - December 2020
Commitment Description
Lead implementing
agency/actor
National Election Commission (NEC)
Indonesia is known as one of the biggest democratic
countries where everyone has the right to elect their
representative and the head of each government
level. There are two types of election which are the
national and regional election. The election
implementation is mandated to the National Election
Commission (NEC). Regarding the important role of
NEC, it has some innovation in executing its duties.
For instance, it publishes electoral data in
http://infopemilu.kpu.go.id portal. However, the data in
the portal is not completely available and limited only
in recent years.
Furthermore, it also occurs for the information about
legislative candidates profile, president candidates
profile and recapitulation of vote counting. That
information can be access in the various web portal,
such as http://infopemilu.kpu.go.id and
https://www.kpu.go.id/. Therefore, to encourage
transparency in the election process, NEC have to
integrate the data through open access.
What is the public problem that
the commitment will address?
The development of integrated electoral data with One
Data aims to adopt the principle of One Data which are
accessible, reusable, and able to be re-distributed by
everyone. The data could be downloaded in an open
format (e.g: CSV, XLS, XML, JSON). In result, the One
Data principles facilitate people to access government
data. The commitment also encourages publishing the
vote counting result, legislative and executive
candidates profile in one NEC official portal. So that,
the people can find the information easily.
What is the commitment?
27 Indonesia Open Government Partnership National Action Plan 2018-2020
To solve the problems above, the commitments tries to
simplify the access of data and information regarding
the election process. Moreover, this commitment is
addressed in two areas which are implementing the
principles of One Data and publishing the vote
counting result.
Therefore, the accessible data will enhance the
transparency of election process both in national and
regional. The development of the electronic system will
also ensure the accuracy, security, and trust of the
people as well as reduce the possibility of fraud during
the election.
How will the commitment
contribute to solve the public
problem? The commitment shows transparency which is one of
the values of Open Government Partnership (OGP). It
is related to the openness quality of public information
and people access the information. In this case,
transparency is shown by integrating the election data
into One Data Portal Indonesia that can facilitate
people to access its data to create a better and more
reliable election.
Why is this commitment relevant
to OGP values?
The commitment is also aligned with achievement
effort of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)
Number 16: “Promote peaceful and inclusive societies
for sustainable development, provide access to justice
for all and effective, accountable and inclusive
institution at all levels”, especially on target 16.6:
“Develop effective, accountable and transparent
institutions at all levels”. Because this commitment is
expected to realize the openness in the national and
regional election in Indonesia, then the integrated
election data can support sustainable development in
the country. Milestone Activity with a verifiable
deliverable
Start Date: End Date:
1. Publication of data on National
Election 2019 voting results at
polling stations online at the official
NEC portal
April 2019 December 2019
2. Integration of data election at one
official NEC portal. This means that
the integration of two portals
(http://infopemilu.kpu.go.id and
https://www.kpu.go.id/) to provide
one portal for election data.
January 2019 December 2019
Contact information
Other Actors
Involved
State actors
involved
1. Ministry of Home Affairs
2. Ministry of National Development and Planning
3. Election Supervisory Body
CSOs, private
sector, multilaterals,
working groups
Association for Election and Democracy (Perludem)
28
3. Publication of data on Regional
Election 2020 voting results at
polling stations online at the official
NEC portal
September 2020 December 2020
Indonesia Open Government Partnership National Action Plan 2018-2020
4. The availability of data election
information in One Data Portal
June 2019 December 2020

IRM Midterm Status Summary

7. Data Integration to Increase Openness in the Management of National Election and Regional Election

Language of the commitment as it appears in the action plan:

The development of integrated electoral data with One Data aims to adopt the principle of One Data which are accessible, reusable, and able to be re-distributed by everyone. The data could be downloaded in an open format (e.g. CSV, XLS, XML, JSON). In result, the One Data principles facilitate people to access government data. The commitment also encourages publishing the vote counting result, legislative and executive candidates profile in one NEC official portal. So that, the people can find the information easily.

Milestones:

  1. Publication of data on National Election 2019 voting results at polling stations online at the official NEC portal.
  2. Integration of data election at one official NEC portal. This means that the integration of two portals (kpu.go.id and kpu.go.id) to provide one portal for election data.
  3. Publication of data on Regional Election 2020 voting results at polling stations online at the official NEC portal.
  4. The availability of data election information in One Data Portal.

Start Date: January 2019                                                               End Date: December 2020

Context and Objectives

General elections in Indonesia include the elections of the president and vice president, members of the House of Representatives (DPR), the Regional Representative Council (DPD), as well as Local Peoples Representative Council (DPRD) at the provincial and city and regency levels. In addition, each province, city, and regency across the country also conducts Local Elections (Pilkada) where voters vote for governor, mayor, or regent in accordance with their voter registration.

The General Elections Commission (KPU) is responsible for organizing each of these elections with the support from local offices. As such, the KPU plays a pivotal role in safeguarding the democratic process in Indonesia by ensuring fair and open elections. In this commitment, the government aims to improve public access to elections data by integrating the existing data portals with the One Data Indonesia data.go.id portal. By integrating elections data onto the One Data portal, the government hopes to make navigation easier for citizens.

Currently, the KPU does not have a centralized elections data portal and does not have consistent data standards. Some data are available on the infopemilu.kpu.go.id portal, while some datasets are available on the kpu.go.id portal. For example, voters can find their voting location on both the infopemilu.kpu.go.id [86] and the lindungihakpilihmu.kpu.go.id [87]. However, only the kpu.go.id site provides voters with information on how to change their voting location. Additionally, beyond these two portals, elections data are stored across a variety of other websites.

As noted by a researcher from the Association for Elections and Democracy (Perludem), [88] the KPU stores its data on an offline server and manually updates online portals as opposed to storing data on an online server with real-time updates. This practice, according to Perludem, [89] threatens the integrity of the elections data that are publicly available as it leaves room for human errors and time gaps between the offline and online databases.

Through this commitment, the KPU aims to integrate all datasets on the two portals (infopemilu.kpu.go.id and kpu.go.id) in a centralized data portal. By doing so, the KPU improves public access to information since it allows citizens to access elections data from a single source. Additionally, a centralized portal allows the KPU to be more consistent in its data collection, disclosure, publishing, and integrity.

At the same time, Perludem noted that the KPU’s leadership has shown a strong commitment in opening up elections data. [90] For example, the KPU signed a memorandum of understanding with civil society organizations to disclose its application program interface (API) to allow citizens to monitor the transparency of elections. However, a transition in the KPU’s leadership has resulted in failure to disclose this API data. As a result, civil society groups have had to manually source elections data. [91]

Another problem with the KPU’s current elections data is the lack of data standards enforcement. Legislative candidates’ data, for example, are sourced from documents submitted by candidates themselves through the silon.kpu.go.id platform accessible only by registered legislative candidates. Consequently, data of legislative candidates on the portal vary in details and therefore cannot be used as the definitive source for information on track records, expertise, and experience that voters need in order to make informed decisions during elections process. In an interview with the IRM researcher, however, Perludem expressed concerns over the unclear data standards used in collecting and disclosing elections data. [92] It is also important to develop a regulation or renew Law No. 7/2017 on Elections [93] to mandate disclosure of elections data in accordance with the One Data Indonesia standard. This can be the entry point for the KPU to significantly improve its elections data governance to be more consistent with international open data standards: availability of data as a whole in convenient and modifiable formats, permits to reuse and redistribute data that are machine-readable, and universal access to use, reuse, and redistribute the data. [94]

Next Steps

The KPU oversees elections. To provide citizens with access to reliable and verifiable elections data, the KPU should adopt a clear data disclosure mechanism. To avoid recurring problems in making elections data accessible due to leadership transitions, the KPU also needs to institutionalize elections data disclosure through regulation. Thus, the practice would be more consistent regardless of any changes in leadership.

The KPU could also develop the consolidated portal to facilitate citizen participation via voting and monitor election results. For example, the KPU could enable voters to update their personal data, request a change in voting location, report violations of election regulation, file complaints of campaign misconduct, etc. Currently, all of these administrative procedures can only be done in person, limiting the opportunities of some citizens to participate in elections, such as the case with the lindungihakpilihmu.kpu.go.id portal which can be used to check a voter’s registration status, but requires physical visit to the nearest KPU office to file data update request. By taking these measures, the KPU could potentially remove barriers that prevent citizens from using their voting rights and increase participation in elections.

[86] General Elections Commission, “Cari Pemilih” (accessed Mar. 2019), https://infopemilu.kpu.go.id/pilpres2019/pemilih/cari-pemilih.

[87] General Elections Commission, “Lindungi Hak Pilihmu” (accessed Mar. 2019), https://lindungihakpilihmu.kpu.go.id.

[88] Maharddhika (Association for Elections and Democracy), interview by IRM researcher, 19 Mar. 2019.

[89] Ibid.

[90] Ibid.

[91] Ibid.

[92] Ibid.

[93] Government of Indonesia, "Undang-Undang No. 7/2017 tentang Pemilihan Umum" (2017), https://rumahpemilu.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/UU-No.7-Tahun-2017-tentang-Pemilu.pdf.

[94] Open Knowledge Foundation, “What is Open” (accessed Jun. 2020), https://okfn.org/opendata.


Commitments

  1. Platform for Improved Legislative Data and Information

    ID0106, 2018, Capacity Building

  2. Make Legislative Information More Accessible

    ID0107, 2018, E-Government

  3. Improving Documentation and Access to Information on Parliamentary Sessions

    ID0108, 2018, E-Government

  4. Formulation of the Open Parliament Indonesia Roadmap

    ID0109, 2018, Capacity Building

  5. Establishing the Open Parliament Indonesia Institution

    ID0110, 2018, Legislative

  6. Extractives Data Management

    ID0092, 2018, Anti-Corruption

  7. Transparency and Participation in Health Data

    ID0093, 2018, E-Government

  8. Public Service Data

    ID0094, 2018, E-Government

  9. Participatory Education Budget

    ID0095, 2018, Capacity Building

  10. Participatory Village Government Planning

    ID0096, 2018, Capacity Building

  11. Civic Participation in E-Legislation Portal

    ID0097, 2018, E-Government

  12. Election Data Openness

    ID0098, 2018, Access to Information

  13. Health Service Data

    ID0099, 2018, E-Government

  14. Public Consultation Reform

    ID0100, 2018, Capacity Building

  15. LAPOR!-SP4N Quality Improvements

    ID0101, 2018, Capacity Building

  16. Complaint System for Environment

    ID0102, 2018, Anti-Corruption

  17. Government Procurement Transparency

    ID0103, 2018, Anti-Corruption

  18. Strenthening Open Data

    ID0104, 2018, Access to Information

  19. Improvements to Legal Aid

    ID0105, 2018, Access to Justice

  20. Open Government Strategic Plan

    ID0047, 2016,

  21. Public Agency Consultation Guidlines

    ID0048, 2016, Capacity Building

  22. Good Governance Manual and Public Consultations to Reach SDGs

    ID0049, 2016, Capacity Building

  23. Geospatial Information Management

    ID0050, 2016, Capacity Building

  24. Monitoring Public Services by Ombudsman

    ID0051, 2016, E-Government

  25. Ombudsman Overseeing Public Services

    ID0052, 2016, Public Service Delivery

  26. Public Services at Ministry of Education and Culture

    ID0053, 2016, Capacity Building

  27. Public Services at Ministry of Religious Affairs

    ID0054, 2016, Public Service Delivery

  28. Development of LAPOR into SP4N

    ID0055, 2016, Capacity Building

  29. Public Complaints Administration Integration into LAPOR!-SP4N

    ID0056, 2016, Capacity Building

  30. LAPOR!- SP4N as Citizen Aspiration and Complaints Platform

    ID0057, 2016, Capacity Building

  31. 1 Million Complaints Via LAPOR! by 2016

    ID0058, 2016, E-Government

  32. LAPOR! Public Accountability

    ID0059, 2016, Public Participation

  33. Interconnectivity of SOEs to LAPOR!

    ID0060, 2016, Capacity Building

  34. Environment and Forrest Sector Public Complaints

    ID0061, 2016, E-Government

  35. Strengthened Village Governance

    ID0062, 2016, Capacity Building

  36. Public Information Disclosure Through Ministry of Health

    ID0063, 2016, E-Government

  37. Public Information Disclosure Through Ministry of Education and Culture

    ID0064, 2016, E-Government

  38. Public Information Disclosure Through Ministry of Research Technology and Higher Education

    ID0065, 2016, E-Government

  39. Public Information Disclosure at Higher Education Institutions

    ID0066, 2016, E-Government

  40. Budget Transparency Information System

    ID0067, 2016, E-Government

  41. Inter Agency Data Governance

    ID0068, 2016, Capacity Building

  42. Open Data Implementation

    ID0069, 2016, Capacity Building

  43. Public Complaints Channels

    ID0070, 2016, Capacity Building

  44. Information Disclosure at Village Levels

    ID0071, 2016, E-Government

  45. Increase in Number of Open Data

    ID0072, 2016, Access to Information

  46. Improved Public Services

    ID0073, 2016, Capacity Building

  47. Transparency in the Regional Government Budget System

    ID0074, 2016, E-Government

  48. Procurement Disclosure in Bandung

    ID0075, 2016, Anti-Corruption

  49. Enhancing the LAPOR! Application

    ID0076, 2016, E-Government

  50. Public Complaints Services in the City of Bandung

    ID0077, 2016, Public Participation

  51. Information Disclosure on Citizens’ Proposals to DPRD

    ID0078, 2016, E-Government

  52. Greater Public Participation in Disseminating Development Information

    ID0079, 2016, Education

  53. "One Data Indonesia” in Semarang.

    ID0080, 2016, Access to Information

  54. One Data Basis for Semarang

    ID0081, 2016, Access to Information

  55. Enhanced Public Information Disclosure

    ID0082, 2016, E-Government

  56. Public Monitoring of Services in Semarang

    ID0083, 2016, Capacity Building

  57. Access to Information on DPRD

    ID0084, 2016, Capacity Building

  58. Data Governance of DPRD

    ID0085, 2016, Fiscal Openness

  59. Infrastructure for Fublic Information Disclosure

    ID0086, 2016, Capacity Building

  60. Public Information Communications Strategy

    ID0087, 2016, Subnational

  61. Information Through Jakarta.Go.Id Portal

    ID0088, 2016, Capacity Building

  62. Public Services Complaint Channel

    ID0089, 2016, Public Participation

  63. Strengthening of Data Governance

    ID0090, 2016, Access to Information

  64. Public Participation in Development Planning

    ID0091, 2016, E-Government

  65. Strengthening Transparency Infrastructure of Public Bodies

    ID0028, 2014, Public Service Delivery

  66. Strengthening Infrastructure of Central and Local Information Commission

    ID0029, 2014, Capacity Building

  67. Strengthening Institutional and Human Resources Infrastructure for Public Services

    ID0030, 2014, Public Participation

  68. Improve Quality of Openness in Health Services

    ID0031, 2014, Health

  69. Improve Quality of Openness in Education Services

    ID0032, 2014, E-Government

  70. Accelerate Open and Good Governance Practices in Law Enforcement

    ID0033, 2014, E-Government

  71. Accelerate Open and Good Governance Practices in Goods and Services Procurement

    ID0034, 2014, Anti-Corruption

  72. Accelerate Open and Good Governance Practices in Business Development and Investment Sector

    ID0035, 2014, Capacity Building

  73. Accelerate Open and Good Governance Practices in Land Affairs

    ID0036, 2014, Land & Spatial Planning

  74. Accelerate Open and Good Governance Practices in Management of Migrant Workers

    ID0037, 2014, Citizenship & Immigration

  75. Accelerate Open and Good Governance Practices in Hajj Management

    ID0038, 2014, Public Service Delivery

  76. Accelerate Open and Good Governance Practices in Natural Resources Management

    ID0039, 2014, Anti-Corruption

  77. Improve Public Participation in Development Planning

    ID0040, 2014, E-Government

  78. Improve Public Participation in House of Representative and Regional Representative Council

    ID0041, 2014, Legislative

  79. Improve Public Participation in Environmental Preservation

    ID0042, 2014, Environment and Climate

  80. Community Empowerment to Handle Poor Society and People with Disabilities and Special Needs

    ID0043, 2014, Health

  81. Community Empowerment to Support Environmental Sustainability

    ID0044, 2014, Environment and Climate

  82. Community Empowerment to Strengthen Agriculture Sector

    ID0045, 2014, Capacity Building

  83. Community Empowerment to Develop Creative Sector

    ID0046, 2014, E-Government

  84. Motor Vehicle Services

    ID0013, 2013, Infrastructure & Transport

  85. Public School Funding

    ID0014, 2013, Anti-Corruption

  86. Hajj Services: Ministry of Religious Affairs

    ID0015, 2013, Anti-Corruption

  87. Marriage Services: Office of Religious Affairs

    ID0016, 2013, Public Service Delivery

  88. Toll Roads

    ID0017, 2013, Public Service Delivery

  89. Land Affairs Transparency

    ID0018, 2013, E-Government

  90. Forest Management

    ID0019, 2013, Anti-Corruption

  91. Transparency and Accountability in Natural Resources Management Activity

    ID0020, 2013, Access to Information

  92. Oil, Gas, and Mining Revenue Transparency

    ID0021, 2013, Anti-Corruption

  93. Appointments of Information and Documentation Management Officials (PPID) in National Agencies and Enactments of their Standard Operating Procedure

    ID0022, 2013, Access to Information

  94. Starred commitment Formulation of a Working Plan and a Well-Operated Tracking System for Business/Investment Licensing Servies in 10 Provinces and 10 Regencies/Cities

    ID0023, 2013, E-Government

  95. Encouraging the Acceleration of the Operational Formation for Information Services in Local Government through the Formation of Local Government's PPID and its Tools

    ID0024, 2013, Access to Information

  96. Encouraging Comprehensive Implementation of Open Government in Pilot Province/Regency/City

    ID0025, 2013, Subnational

  97. Integration of Performance-Based Budgeting

    ID0026, 2013, Fiscal Openness

  98. Ensuring the Publication of Budget Plan (RKA/DIPA)

    ID0027, 2013, Fiscal Openness

  99. Poverty Reduction

    ID0001, 2011, E-Government

  100. Education Subsidies

    ID0002, 2011, Education

  101. Health Subsidies

    ID0003, 2011, Health

  102. Police

    ID0004, 2011, Dispute Resolution & Legal Assistance

  103. High Corruption Risk

    ID0005, 2011, E-Government

  104. Civil Service Recruitment

    ID0006, 2011, Capacity Building

  105. Land Administration

    ID0007, 2011, E-Government

  106. National Budget Information

    ID0008, 2011, Anti-Corruption

  107. District Budget Information

    ID0009, 2011, Fiscal Openness

  108. e-Procurement

    ID0010, 2011, Anti-Corruption

  109. One-Map Portal

    ID0011, 2011, E-Government

  110. Environmental Openness

    ID0012, 2011, Anti-Corruption

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