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Indonesia

Participatory Education Budget (ID0095)

Overview

At-a-Glance

Action Plan: Indonesia Action Plan 2018-2020

Action Plan Cycle: 2018

Status: Active

Institutions

Lead Institution: Ministry of Education and Culture

Support Institution(s): Ministry of Home Affairs, Transparency International Indonesia

Policy Areas

Capacity Building, Education, Fiscal Openness, Public Participation, Public Service Delivery, Publication of Budget/Fiscal Information, Subnational, Sustainable Development Goals

IRM Review

IRM Report: Indonesia Design Report 2018-2020

Starred: Pending IRM Review

Early Results: Pending IRM Review

Design i

Verifiable: Yes

Relevant to OGP Values: Civic Participation

Potential Impact:

Implementation i

Completion: Pending IRM Review

Description

January 2019 - December 2020
Commitment Description
Lead implementing
agency/actor
Ministry of Education and Culture
Law Number 20/2003 Article 49.1 on National
Educational System mandates that central and
regional government require to allocate at least 20%
of State Budget (APBN) and Regional Budget (APBD)
to enhance the quality of education nationally.
However, in the implementation level, people cannot
get the benefit of the budget. For this reason, Ministry
of Education and Culture published Regional
Education Budget (REB) to provide the information
regarding the budget and education policy in each
region.
For this reason, Ministry of Education and Culture
published Regional Education Budget (REB) to
monitor budget allocation and the enhancement of
education quality. REB contains data about the budget
and education achievement to improve the education
quality services in regional areas. Furthermore, the
data format in REB will be provided using charts,
graphs, and time series so that it will be easier to
monitor the progress.
Unfortunately, REB is not widely known by people and
resulted in less consideration for future planning and
budgeting. Therefore broadening REB information
can provide an opportunity for government and civil
society to give inputs on educational program plan
based on the actual evidence as well as supervise the
education budget.
What is the public problem that
the commitment will address?
Recently, the government faced non-optimal
distribution of education budget allocation. Therefore,
REB is used to identify the main problems in the
regional education program. By using REB, the
government can easily acknowledge the distribution of
education budget, accreditation, classroom condition,
national examination result, and national examination
integrity index, teacher qualification, teacher
competency test, gross enrollment rate, net enrollment
rate, and education ratio.
Considering the benefit of REB, the commitments will
address the use of REB as basic information for the
people who are involved in the decision-making
process to improve the quality of education in the
regional area. How will the commitment
contribute to solve the public
problem?
● The commitment is aligned with some of Open
Government Partnership (OGP) values which are
transparency and civic participation. Transparency
is related to the openness of public information
and people access the information. It is
manifested within the publishment of REB by the
Ministry of Education and Culture along with the
participation from society to renew the REB data.
● Civic participation is interpreted as the society will
be involved further in the decision-making process
that is shown in people’s involvement in
supervising the management of the education
budget through the REB portal.
Why is this commitment relevant
to OGP values?
The commitment is also aligned with achievement
effort of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)
Number 16: “promote peaceful and inclusive societies
for sustainable development, provide access to justice
for all and build effective, accountable, and inclusive
institutions at all levels.” Especially in the target 16.6:
“develop effective, accountable, and transparent
institutions at all levels.” Because sustainable
development in the future can only be supported by
national institutions that are accountable for their
budgeting and expense. Moreover, this commitment is
indirectly cross-cutting with SDGs Number 4: “Ensure
inclusive and equitable quality education and promote
lifelong learning opportunities for all”, especially on
target 4.1: “By 2030, ensure that all girls and boys
complete free, equitable and quality primary and
secondary education leading to relevant and effective
learning outcomes”.
Additional information
Milestone Activity with a verifiable
deliverable
Start Date: End Date:
1. The socialization of REB to civil
society and local government
January 2019 December 2019
2. The consultation forum for the
educational budget plan with civil
society in regions
January 2020 December 2020 Contact information
Other Actors
Involved
State actors
involved
CSOs, private
sector, multilaterals,
working groups
Transparency International Indonesia
21 Indonesia Open Government Partnership National Action Plan 2018-2020
1. Ministry of Home Affairs

IRM Midterm Status Summary

4. The Utilization of Regional Education Budget for Participatory Education Budget Plan

Language of the commitment as it appears in the action plan:

Recently, the government faced non-optimal distribution of education budget allocation. Therefore, the Regional Education Budget (REB) is used to identify the main problems in the regional education program. By using REB, the government can easily acknowledge the distribution of education budget, accreditation, classroom condition, national examination result, and national examination integrity index, teacher qualification, teacher competency test, gross enrolment rate, net enrolment rate, and education ratio.

Considering the benefit of REB, the commitments will address the use of REB as basic information for the people who are involved in the decision-making process to improve the quality of education in the regional area.

Milestones:

  1. The socialization of REB to civil society and local government.
  2. The consultation forum for the educational budget plan with civil society in regions.

Start Date: January 2019                                                               End Date: December 2020

Context and Objectives

Article 49 of Law No. 20/2003 on the National Education System explicitly mandates that the government allocate a minimum of 20% of its budget for the education sector. [57] To ensure that this percentage goes to meaningful development of the education system, the law specifies that the 20% allocation is in addition to the budget for wages. This regulation applies not only for the central government, but also local governments.

Currently, government practice is not consistent with the law. While the central government has consistently allocated 20% of its budget (APBN) for education, a portion of this amount is distributed to local governments, [58] who have interpreted the law differently. As mandated, local governments are also required to allocate a minimum of 20% of its budget (APBD) for education on top of the contribution from the central government. However, many local governments allocate much less than the 20% minimum quota for education in their APBD by including the central government’s funding in the calculation. [59] According to the OGI National Secretariat, this commitment was developed in response to these inconsistencies.

In 2017, for example, Minister of Education and Culture Muhadjir Effendy publicly criticized local governments for allocating less than 20% of their budgets for education. [60] According to Effendy at the time, only the Jakarta Special Capital Region complied with the Law—allocating 22% of its budget for education. The remaining 33 provinces, according to his statement, allocated as little as only 1.4% of their budgets for education. However, it is difficult to hold local governments accountable on the allocation of a 20% minimum of APBD budget for education as well as on how they available funding is used appropriately. This is particularly due to gaps in the interpretation of the law by government leadership at the national and subnational levels.

The problem that this commitment addresses consists of two different components. The first component is the government’s lack of transparency in education funding allocation both at the national and regional levels. The second component is the lack of accountability in how the government is using the allocated funds to improve education. At the same time, it is difficult for citizens to scrutinize the government given the limited access to education budget information as well as a lack of opportunity to participate in the process of determining the allocation and use of the funding.

To overcome these problems, the Ministry of Education and Culture developed the Regional Education Index (NPD). [61] The index, available at npd.kemdikbud.go.id, discloses a variety of information pertaining to education development across all regions in Indonesia. In addition to providing education budget data, [62] the index also provides an overview of key components of the education system in each province, city, and regency. These components include the accreditation status, [63] facilities, [64] testing scores, [65] qualifications [66] and competencies [67] of teachers, as well as teacher-to-student ratios [68] across all schools within a region.

The index is intended to enhance coordination between the Ministry of Education and Culture at the national level and its local counterparts at the city/regency/provincial levels which include Local Department of Education, Local Development Planning Agency, Local House of Representatives, and civil society groups. Despite the availability of this information, however, local governments do not use the index in allocating education budgets and developing education programs. As a result, a big portion of education budgets at the local level tends to be spent on building and renovating infrastructures [69] without clear urgency and proper justification. In other words, despite its availability, local governments do not use the data on the index in devising their education budget and programs. [70]

This commitment, therefore, aims to raise awareness of the index among local governments, local civil society, and citizens. To do so, the Ministry of Education and Culture will conduct a series of workshops involving government and civil society stakeholders on how to use the Regional Education Index for education budgeting and programming. Through these workshops, citizens will be able to scrutinize how local governments utilize education budgets to ensure that education spending responds to the most urgent local needs. If implemented properly, this commitment could moderately change education budgeting and programming at local levels.

However, the government has also admitted that low budget allocation may also be related to low own-source revenue (PAD) generated by local governments. [71] If the budget provided by the central government for education in a region does not meet the needs, local governments are responsible for filling the gap through their local budget. However, given different PADs generated by each local government, their ability is often limited. Additionally, lack of political commitment to fund education from local budgets may be a factor, as expressed by the Minister of Finance in a meeting with the Ministry of Research, Technology, and Higher Education. [72] As such, the underlying problems may actually be far more complex than simply inadequate funding from the central government and a lack of transparency in education spending by local governments.

Next Steps

This commitment has the potential to increase awareness of the Regional Education Index, encourage greater public participation in the development and monitoring of education budgets, and enhance the accountability of local governments in complying with the National Education System Law. By raising awareness of the index and organizing regular consultations with civil society, local governments will be more open to public scrutiny in managing education funding.

To ensure implementation of this commitment, the Ministry of Education and Culture should first identify the challenges preventing local governments from allocating a minimum of 20% of their budget for education and develop an effective implementation strategy. Additionally, to encourage greater public participation in monitoring education budgeting and programming at the local level, the Ministry of Education and Culture needs to collaborate with the Ministry of Home Affairs in establishing a clear mechanism that mandates citizens be included in the process.

[57] Government of Indonesia, “Undang-Undang No. 20/2003 tentang Sistem Pendidikan Nasional” (2003), https://kelembagaan.ristekdikti.go.id/wp-content/uploads/2016/08/UU_no_20_th_2003.pdf.

[58] Ministry of Finance, “Anggaran Pendidikan APBN 2019” (accessed Mar. 2019), http://visual.kemenkeu.go.id/anggaran-pendidikan-apbn-2019.

[59] Tities Eka Agustine (Open Government Indonesia National Secretariat), interview by IRM researcher, 18 Mar. 2019.

[60] Mohammad Nadlir, "Mendikbud Prihatin Banyak Daerah Alokasikan Anggaran Pendidikan di Bawah 20 Persen" (Kompas, 23 Aug. 2017), https://nasional.kompas.com/read/2017/08/23/17263051/mendikbud-prihatin-banyak-daerah-alokasikan-anggaran-pendidikan-di-bawah-20.

[61] To maintain consistency with official publications, this report will continue referring to the index as Regional Education Index (NPD) as opposed to Regional Education Budget (REB) as used in the original text of the action plan.

[62] Ministry of Education and Culture, “Anggaran” (accessed Mar. 2019), https://npd.kemdikbud.go.id/?appid=anggaran.

[63] Ministry of Education and Culture, “Akreditasi” (accessed Mar. 2019), https://npd.kemdikbud.go.id/?appid=akreditasi.

[64] Ministry of Education and Culture, “Kondisi Ruang Kelas” (accessed Mar. 2019), https://npd.kemdikbud.go.id/?appid=ruangkelas.

[65] Ministry of Education and Culture, “Hasil UN & IIUN” (accessed Mar. 2019), https://npd.kemdikbud.go.id/?appid=hasilun.

[66] Ministry of Education and Culture, “Data Kualifikasi Guru” (accessed Mar. 2019), https://npd.kemdikbud.go.id/?appid=kualifikasi.

[67] Ministry of Education and Culture, “Data UKG” (accessed Mar. 2019), https://npd.kemdikbud.go.id/?appid=ukg.

[68] Ministry of Education and Culture, “Rasio Pendidikan” (accessed Mar. 2019), https://npd.kemdikbud.go.id/?appid=rasio.

[69] Mohammad Bernie, “Penggunaan Anggaran Pendidikan Dinilai Belum Efisien” (Tirto, 26 Jan. 2019), https://tirto.id/penggunaan-anggaran-pendidikan-dinilai-belum-efisien-dfcl.

[70] Agustine, interview.

[71] Emanuel B. Caesario, “Alokasi Anggaran Pendidikan di Daerah Masih Banyak yang Belum Capai 20%,” (Bisnis, 2016), https://kabar24.bisnis.com/read/20161218/255/612997/alokasi-anggaran-pendidikan-di-daerah-masih-banyak-yang-belum-capai-20.

[72] Mesha Mediani, “Sri Mulyani Kritik Penggunaan Dana Pendidikan Belum Maksimal” (CNN Indonesia, 5 Jul. 2018), https://www.cnnindonesia.com/ekonomi/20180507153544-532-296298/sri-mulyani-kritik-penggunaan-dana-pendidikan-belum-maksimal.


Commitments

  1. Platform for Improved Legislative Data and Information

    ID0106, 2018, Capacity Building

  2. Make Legislative Information More Accessible

    ID0107, 2018, E-Government

  3. Improving Documentation and Access to Information on Parliamentary Sessions

    ID0108, 2018, E-Government

  4. Formulation of the Open Parliament Indonesia Roadmap

    ID0109, 2018, Capacity Building

  5. Establishing the Open Parliament Indonesia Institution

    ID0110, 2018, Legislative

  6. Extractives Data Management

    ID0092, 2018, Anti-Corruption

  7. Transparency and Participation in Health Data

    ID0093, 2018, E-Government

  8. Public Service Data

    ID0094, 2018, E-Government

  9. Participatory Education Budget

    ID0095, 2018, Capacity Building

  10. Participatory Village Government Planning

    ID0096, 2018, Capacity Building

  11. Civic Participation in E-Legislation Portal

    ID0097, 2018, E-Government

  12. Election Data Openness

    ID0098, 2018, Access to Information

  13. Health Service Data

    ID0099, 2018, E-Government

  14. Public Consultation Reform

    ID0100, 2018, Capacity Building

  15. LAPOR!-SP4N Quality Improvements

    ID0101, 2018, Capacity Building

  16. Complaint System for Environment

    ID0102, 2018, Anti-Corruption

  17. Government Procurement Transparency

    ID0103, 2018, Anti-Corruption

  18. Strenthening Open Data

    ID0104, 2018, Access to Information

  19. Improvements to Legal Aid

    ID0105, 2018, Access to Justice

  20. Open Government Strategic Plan

    ID0047, 2016,

  21. Public Agency Consultation Guidlines

    ID0048, 2016, Capacity Building

  22. Good Governance Manual and Public Consultations to Reach SDGs

    ID0049, 2016, Capacity Building

  23. Geospatial Information Management

    ID0050, 2016, Capacity Building

  24. Monitoring Public Services by Ombudsman

    ID0051, 2016, E-Government

  25. Ombudsman Overseeing Public Services

    ID0052, 2016, Public Service Delivery

  26. Public Services at Ministry of Education and Culture

    ID0053, 2016, Capacity Building

  27. Public Services at Ministry of Religious Affairs

    ID0054, 2016, Public Service Delivery

  28. Development of LAPOR into SP4N

    ID0055, 2016, Capacity Building

  29. Public Complaints Administration Integration into LAPOR!-SP4N

    ID0056, 2016, Capacity Building

  30. LAPOR!- SP4N as Citizen Aspiration and Complaints Platform

    ID0057, 2016, Capacity Building

  31. 1 Million Complaints Via LAPOR! by 2016

    ID0058, 2016, E-Government

  32. LAPOR! Public Accountability

    ID0059, 2016, Public Participation

  33. Interconnectivity of SOEs to LAPOR!

    ID0060, 2016, Capacity Building

  34. Environment and Forrest Sector Public Complaints

    ID0061, 2016, E-Government

  35. Strengthened Village Governance

    ID0062, 2016, Capacity Building

  36. Public Information Disclosure Through Ministry of Health

    ID0063, 2016, E-Government

  37. Public Information Disclosure Through Ministry of Education and Culture

    ID0064, 2016, E-Government

  38. Public Information Disclosure Through Ministry of Research Technology and Higher Education

    ID0065, 2016, E-Government

  39. Public Information Disclosure at Higher Education Institutions

    ID0066, 2016, E-Government

  40. Budget Transparency Information System

    ID0067, 2016, E-Government

  41. Inter Agency Data Governance

    ID0068, 2016, Capacity Building

  42. Open Data Implementation

    ID0069, 2016, Capacity Building

  43. Public Complaints Channels

    ID0070, 2016, Capacity Building

  44. Information Disclosure at Village Levels

    ID0071, 2016, E-Government

  45. Increase in Number of Open Data

    ID0072, 2016, Access to Information

  46. Improved Public Services

    ID0073, 2016, Capacity Building

  47. Transparency in the Regional Government Budget System

    ID0074, 2016, E-Government

  48. Procurement Disclosure in Bandung

    ID0075, 2016, Anti-Corruption

  49. Enhancing the LAPOR! Application

    ID0076, 2016, E-Government

  50. Public Complaints Services in the City of Bandung

    ID0077, 2016, Public Participation

  51. Information Disclosure on Citizens’ Proposals to DPRD

    ID0078, 2016, E-Government

  52. Greater Public Participation in Disseminating Development Information

    ID0079, 2016, Education

  53. "One Data Indonesia” in Semarang.

    ID0080, 2016, Access to Information

  54. One Data Basis for Semarang

    ID0081, 2016, Access to Information

  55. Enhanced Public Information Disclosure

    ID0082, 2016, E-Government

  56. Public Monitoring of Services in Semarang

    ID0083, 2016, Capacity Building

  57. Access to Information on DPRD

    ID0084, 2016, Capacity Building

  58. Data Governance of DPRD

    ID0085, 2016, Fiscal Openness

  59. Infrastructure for Fublic Information Disclosure

    ID0086, 2016, Capacity Building

  60. Public Information Communications Strategy

    ID0087, 2016, Subnational

  61. Information Through Jakarta.Go.Id Portal

    ID0088, 2016, Capacity Building

  62. Public Services Complaint Channel

    ID0089, 2016, Public Participation

  63. Strengthening of Data Governance

    ID0090, 2016, Access to Information

  64. Public Participation in Development Planning

    ID0091, 2016, E-Government

  65. Strengthening Transparency Infrastructure of Public Bodies

    ID0028, 2014, Public Service Delivery

  66. Strengthening Infrastructure of Central and Local Information Commission

    ID0029, 2014, Capacity Building

  67. Strengthening Institutional and Human Resources Infrastructure for Public Services

    ID0030, 2014, Public Participation

  68. Improve Quality of Openness in Health Services

    ID0031, 2014, Health

  69. Improve Quality of Openness in Education Services

    ID0032, 2014, E-Government

  70. Accelerate Open and Good Governance Practices in Law Enforcement

    ID0033, 2014, E-Government

  71. Accelerate Open and Good Governance Practices in Goods and Services Procurement

    ID0034, 2014, Anti-Corruption

  72. Accelerate Open and Good Governance Practices in Business Development and Investment Sector

    ID0035, 2014, Capacity Building

  73. Accelerate Open and Good Governance Practices in Land Affairs

    ID0036, 2014, Land Rights and Spatial Planning

  74. Accelerate Open and Good Governance Practices in Management of Migrant Workers

    ID0037, 2014, Citizenship & Immigration

  75. Accelerate Open and Good Governance Practices in Hajj Management

    ID0038, 2014, Public Service Delivery

  76. Accelerate Open and Good Governance Practices in Natural Resources Management

    ID0039, 2014, Anti-Corruption

  77. Improve Public Participation in Development Planning

    ID0040, 2014, E-Government

  78. Improve Public Participation in House of Representative and Regional Representative Council

    ID0041, 2014, Legislative

  79. Improve Public Participation in Environmental Preservation

    ID0042, 2014, Environment and Climate

  80. Community Empowerment to Handle Poor Society and People with Disabilities and Special Needs

    ID0043, 2014, Health

  81. Community Empowerment to Support Environmental Sustainability

    ID0044, 2014, Environment and Climate

  82. Community Empowerment to Strengthen Agriculture Sector

    ID0045, 2014, Capacity Building

  83. Community Empowerment to Develop Creative Sector

    ID0046, 2014, E-Government

  84. Motor Vehicle Services

    ID0013, 2013, Infrastructure & Transport

  85. Public School Funding

    ID0014, 2013, Anti-Corruption

  86. Hajj Services: Ministry of Religious Affairs

    ID0015, 2013, Anti-Corruption

  87. Marriage Services: Office of Religious Affairs

    ID0016, 2013, Public Service Delivery

  88. Toll Roads

    ID0017, 2013, Public Service Delivery

  89. Land Affairs Transparency

    ID0018, 2013, E-Government

  90. Forest Management

    ID0019, 2013, Anti-Corruption

  91. Transparency and Accountability in Natural Resources Management Activity

    ID0020, 2013, Access to Information

  92. Oil, Gas, and Mining Revenue Transparency

    ID0021, 2013, Anti-Corruption

  93. Appointments of Information and Documentation Management Officials (PPID) in National Agencies and Enactments of their Standard Operating Procedure

    ID0022, 2013, Access to Information

  94. Starred commitment Formulation of a Working Plan and a Well-Operated Tracking System for Business/Investment Licensing Servies in 10 Provinces and 10 Regencies/Cities

    ID0023, 2013, E-Government

  95. Encouraging the Acceleration of the Operational Formation for Information Services in Local Government through the Formation of Local Government's PPID and its Tools

    ID0024, 2013, Access to Information

  96. Encouraging Comprehensive Implementation of Open Government in Pilot Province/Regency/City

    ID0025, 2013, Subnational

  97. Integration of Performance-Based Budgeting

    ID0026, 2013, Fiscal Openness

  98. Ensuring the Publication of Budget Plan (RKA/DIPA)

    ID0027, 2013, Fiscal Openness

  99. Poverty Reduction

    ID0001, 2011, E-Government

  100. Education Subsidies

    ID0002, 2011, Education

  101. Health Subsidies

    ID0003, 2011, Health

  102. Police

    ID0004, 2011, Dispute Resolution & Legal Assistance

  103. High Corruption Risk

    ID0005, 2011, E-Government

  104. Civil Service Recruitment

    ID0006, 2011, Capacity Building

  105. Land Administration

    ID0007, 2011, E-Government

  106. National Budget Information

    ID0008, 2011, Anti-Corruption

  107. District Budget Information

    ID0009, 2011, Fiscal Openness

  108. e-Procurement

    ID0010, 2011, Anti-Corruption

  109. One-Map Portal

    ID0011, 2011, E-Government

  110. Environmental Openness

    ID0012, 2011, Anti-Corruption

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