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Slovak Republic

Analyze the Possibility of Applying Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) Public License As Standard for Selected Works Mandatorily Published in the Central Registry of Theses and Dissertations. (SK0089)



Action Plan: Not Attached

Action Plan Cycle: 2017

Status: Active


Lead Institution: Minister of Education, Science, Research and Sport

Support Institution(s): NA

Policy Areas

E-Government, Education, Public Service Delivery

IRM Review

IRM Report: Slovakia Design Report 2017–2019

Starred: Pending IRM Review

Early Results: Pending IRM Review

Design i

Verifiable: No

Relevant to OGP Values: Access to Information

Potential Impact:

Implementation i



The Slovak Centre of Scientific and Technical Information has been operating the Central Registry of Theses and Dissertations19 that collects theses and dissertations of students and university teachers20. The next step in this area could be to change the current license conditions to make these works available under a Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license. This will create several effects - it will simplify the admin-istration associated with the current creation of contracts between universities and authors raise aware-ness of this type of licenses and simplify the use of these works, which is currently read-only and time-limited. A similar approach can be applied to the written reviews of these theses, which will introduce the process of assessment of these theses to greater public scrutiny. It is necessary to first analyze the proposal from all relevant aspects, especially from the perspective of copyright, so that it is in compliance with inter-national, European, as well as national law.
Commitment No. 32: Analyze the possibility of applying Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) public license as standard for selected works mandatorily published in the Central Registry of Theses and Dis-sertations.

IRM Midterm Status Summary

THEME - Promote and ensure the use of Creative Commons Attribution license  
Comm 26, 27, 28, 30, 32, 36

Language of the commitment as it appears in the action plan[Note : The Office of the Plenipotentiary, “Open Government Partnership National Action Plan of the Slovak Republic 2017 – 2019”, %5D:

Commitment 26: “After the establishment of the repository of the Ministry of Education, Science, Research and Sport of the Slovak Republic, continuously make available open educational resources under the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) public license.”

Commitment 27: “Reach out to partners who have provided educational resources after 2008 to the Ministry of Education, Science, Research and Sport of the Slovak Republic or to its directly managed organizations, with a suggestion to make educational resources available under the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) public license.”

Commitment 28: “Ensure that all contractual relationships for the creation of educational resources funded by public funds under the authority of the Ministry of Education, Science, Research and Sport of the Slovak Republic and its subordinate institutions include the condition of the use of a Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) public license.”

Commitment 30: “Propose and carry out pilot program for ensuring availability of university textbooks and similar publications, as well as and scientific journals published by universities under Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) public license through the repository operated by the Ministry of Education, Science, Research and Sport of the Slovak Republic.”

Commitment 32: “Analyze the possibility of applying Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) public license as standard for selected works mandatorily published in the Central Registry of Theses and Dissertations.”

Commitment 36: “Ensure the implementation of public license Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) in the relevant documents, methodologies, manuals and procedures in order to increase their usage by authors and other rights holders in the preparation of scientific papers.”

Start Date: Not specified    

End Date: 31 December 2018 and ongoing 


Context and Objectives

The commitments to publish educational resources, as well as research outputs under the Creative Commons attribution public license (CC-BY), are carried over from the previous action plan[Note : The Office of the Plenipotentiary, “Open Government Partnership National Action Plan of the Slovak Republic 2015”, As mentioned above, Slovakia was one of the first OGP member countries to include commitments on open education and open access in its action plan. In general, these commitments were perceived positively as a start of a conversation about these topics that will be followed up by actions. However, the results of the previous action plan suggest that despite the commitments, progress on delivery has been slow.

The Ministry of Education concluded that, due to the restrictive nature of the contracts with publishers, available educational resources could not be published under Creative Commons licenses[Note : The Office of the Plenipotentiary, “Open Education”, (in Slovak). See spreadsheet “Elektronicky dostupné vzdelávacie zdroje”. ]. Commitment 27 to initiate negotiations with publishers to request a change to contractual conditions which will enable the Ministry to publish educational resources under open licenses could lead to a shift in current restrictive conditions. In addition, the commitment could potentially help in establishing a database of open educational resources to start with. However, as it is written, it rather represents an internal process. 

Commitment 28 to ensure that all contracts with publishers will include the condition to use CC-BY license is useful, as it could at least ensure future educational resources will be open. Similarly, the commitment 26 to continue making educational resources available under the CC-BY license is important and could also contribute to creating a critical mass of open educational resources, so that teachers can use them. At the moment, most of the educational resources are available under proprietary licenses which lie with the supplier/publisher. On the Official Editorial Portal[Note : Editorial Portal,, which includes all textbooks approved by the Ministry, there are up to 300 grammar schools’ textbooks for children with special needs, up to 400 grammar schools’ textbooks, and over 500 high schools’ textbooks. To give an idea of the scope of the proposed measures, in the current situation when these are published predominantly under proprietary licenses, any reprint, if required, often has to be negotiated with the supplier. Therefore, these commitments might potentially address the problem of a lack of educational resources.


Commitments 30, 32 and 36 also advance the use of CC-BY public licenses but in the higher education and research sector. Commitment 30 to run a pilot and ensure that all outputs made available in the open access repository will be published under CC-BY public license is useful and could encourage open access practices in academia.

Commitment 32 to analyze the possibility of applying CC-BY public license as a standard for selected works mandatorily published in the Central Register of Theses and Dissertations is very timely and relevant amidst the case of Andrej Danko, the Speaker of the Parliament who recently banned the public from viewing his dissertation acting contrary to the spirit of open access and OGP values more broadly[Note : Nina Francelová “Why is an 18-year-old doctoral dissertation causing an uproar among the public?”, ]. Once he made his work available, the journalists revealed that his work is plagiarism, copy-pasted from five different books[Note : Mária Benedikovičová and Daniel Vražda, “Danko vykradol päť učebníc, jeho rigorózna práca je plagiát” (Danko copied extensive passages from five textbooks, his thesis is a plagiarism),, (in Slovak) and The Slovak Spectator, “UPDATED: Denník N: Danko is a plagiarist”, ]. While it is a common practice in democratic countries that high-level politicians resign after alleged plagiarism scandals, Danko refused to step down and survived a no-confidence vote. For weeks, the Ministry of Education ignored the situation without providing any official statement. In November, the ministry summarized that only courts could act and decide, and in a legally-binding form confirm the cases of plagiarism.

All in all, the ministry avoided giving any clear position on plagiarism[Note : The Ministry of Education, “Vyhlásenie MŠVVaŠ SR k medializovaným informáciám o porušovaní autorských práv v záverečných prácach na VŠ” (The Ministry’s statement on the infrigment of copyright in theses and dissertations at universities), (in Slovak). ]. Many researchers reacted with disappointment that such approach devaluates their work[Note : Tomáš Nejedlý, “Pedagogička: Moji študenti pri podvádzaní hovoria, že „to dali na Danka”” (Pedagogue: When my students cheat they tell me they just did what Danko did),, (in Slovak). ]. They criticized Danko’s lack of willingness to draw the consequences, questioned the quality and origin of his work and stated that he should resign from his position[Note : Daniel Vražda, “Profesor Krško z UMB: Nerozumiem aktivite pána Danka, niečo nie je v poriadku” (Professor Krško from UMB: I don’t understand Danko, something is not right there), (in Slovak). ]. They also expressed disappointment about the ministry’s silence about the case. Given these events, commitment 32 to analyze the possibility of applying CC-BY public license as a standard for selected works mandatorily published in the Central Register of Theses and Dissertations could improve the practice and discourage or at least expose earlier cases like that one of Danko who concealed his dissertation. However, if the ministry would like to be a respected leader in these topics, it needs to lead by example and strongly condemn any unethical behavior in educational or scientific practice.   

Next steps

All interviewed academics and open education and science activists agreed that all commitments in this cluster to promote and ensure the use of Creative Commons licenses are important. If well implemented, they could have a major impact on introducing new innovative practices and approaches to creating, sharing and using educational and scientific content which many could benefit. These commitments could contribute to greater openness and set new standards for teachers and researchers. Therefore, the IRM researcher recommends continuing with the implementation of the commitments. However, since interviewees expressed serious concerns about professional capacities and a will to lead the topic and work with a variety of stakeholders, the ministry should demonstrate that its interest in the topic of open education and science is genuine by leading by example, taking unambiguous attitudes in any questions of academic ethics and rigor and engage broader community of teachers, CSO representatives and academics in its activities.        

Slovak Republic's Commitments

  1. Open Data Portal

    SK0058, 2017, Open Data

  2. Submit a Draft Law on Data to the Government.

    SK0059, 2017, Legislation & Regulation

  3. Public Administration Employee Training

    SK0060, 2017, Capacity Building

  4. Data Publication Standards

    SK0061, 2017, Capacity Building

  5. Update Open Data Portal

    SK0062, 2017, Open Data

  6. Open Data Publication

    SK0063, 2017, Open Data

  7. Open Data Awareness-Raising

    SK0064, 2017, Open Data

  8. Survey About Open Data

    SK0065, 2017, E-Government

  9. Publish Open Data

    SK0066, 2017, Open Data

  10. Analysis of Open Data

    SK0067, 2017, Open Data

  11. Open Data Strategy

    SK0068, 2017, Open Data

  12. Develop Standards for Publicly Available Application Programming Interfaces and Submit Them to the Commission for the Standardization of Information Systems in Public Administration.

    SK0069, 2017, E-Government

  13. Ensure Open Data Publication

    SK0070, 2017, Open Data

  14. Survey of Public Demand for Application Programming Interfaces

    SK0071, 2017, E-Government

  15. Publish Application Programming Interfaces

    SK0072, 2017, Open Data

  16. Enable the Disclosure of Source Code and Development Using Open Methods for Newly Developed Plug-Ins and Extensions of Web Browsers and Client Applications.

    SK0073, 2017, Open Data

  17. Custom-Made Information Systems

    SK0074, 2017, Open Data

  18. Publish Open Source Software Data

    SK0075, 2017, Open Data

  19. Study About Open Source Software

    SK0076, 2017, Open Data

  20. Feasibility Study on NGO Satellite Account

    SK0077, 2017, Civic Space

  21. Define the Minimum Scope and Structure of the Disclosed Data on the Use of European Structural and Investment Funds, the EEA Financial Mechanism, Norwegian Financial Mechanism, the Swiss Financial Mechanism and Subsidy Schemes From the State Budget.

    SK0078, 2017, Aid

  22. Publish Financial Data

    SK0079, 2017, Aid

  23. Propose Changes to Central Register of Contracts Regulation

    SK0080, 2017, Legislation & Regulation

  24. Create Space for the Publication of Local Self-Government (Municipality) Contracts in a Single Central Repository.

    SK0081, 2017, Open Contracting and Procurement

  25. Establish and Operate a Repository of the Ministry of Education, Science, Research and Sport of the Slovak Republic for Storage, Long-Term Archiving and Access to Educational Resources.

    SK0082, 2017, E-Government

  26. Open Education Resources

    SK0083, 2017, E-Government

  27. Reach Out to Partners Who Have Provided Educational Resources After 2008 to the Ministry of Education, Science, Research and Sport of the Slovak Republic Or to Its Directly Managed OrGanizations, with a Suggestion to Make Educational Resources Available Under the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) Public License.

    SK0084, 2017, E-Government

  28. Enforce Public Licensing

    SK0085, 2017, Education

  29. Make Educational Resources Available in Local Langage

    SK0086, 2017, Education

  30. Ensure Availability of University Textbooks

    SK0087, 2017, E-Government

  31. Introduce Specific Rules for Open Publication and the Obligation to Provide Free Access of Selected Publicly Funded Publica-Tions

    SK0088, 2017, E-Government

  32. Analyze the Possibility of Applying Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) Public License As Standard for Selected Works Mandatorily Published in the Central Registry of Theses and Dissertations.

    SK0089, 2017, E-Government

  33. Awareness-Raising About Open Education Resources

    SK0090, 2017, E-Government

  34. Publish the Outcomes of the Approval Process of Educational Resources on the Web-Site of the Ministry of Education, Science, Research and Sport of the Slovak Republic.

    SK0091, 2017, E-Government

  35. To Introduce the Basic Principles of Open Access to Scientific Publications Under a Public License Under the Operational Program Research and Innovation.

    SK0092, 2017, E-Government

  36. Ensure the Implementation of Public License Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY)

    SK0093, 2017, Open Data

  37. Establish Contact Office for Open Access.

    SK0094, 2017, Open Data

  38. Establish Conditions for Passportization of Open Research Data Under a Public License and Monitor Its Implementation in Practice.

    SK0095, 2017, E-Government

  39. Establish and Operate a Repository to Provide Storage, Long-Term Archiving and Ac-Cess to Slovak Scientific and Academic Publications, Research Data and Gray Literature.

    SK0096, 2017, Open Data

  40. Design Systematic Benchmarking Monitoring Mechanisms for the Measurement and Comparison and Propose Further Analyses Related to Acquiring, Processing and Re-Use of Research Data and Open Access Scientific Publications.

    SK0097, 2017, E-Government

  41. Raise Awareness About Open Access in Academic Community

    SK0098, 2017, Education

  42. Participate in International Coordination on Open Education Reforms

    SK0099, 2017, Education

  43. Participatory Public Policy

    SK0100, 2017, E-Government

  44. Citizen-Traingin on Public Policy Making

    SK0101, 2017, Capacity Building

  45. Create Engaging Public Policies

    SK0102, 2017, Capacity Building

  46. Government Employee Peer-Exchange

    SK0103, 2017, Capacity Building

  47. Evaluate Identified Participatory Processes of Creation and Implementation of Pub-Lic Policies and Disseminate Examples of Good Practice Based on This Evaluation.

    SK0104, 2017, Capacity Building

  48. Promote Partnership and Dialogue Between Public Authorities, Citizens and NGOs at National, Regional and Local Level in the Area of Participatory Public Policy-Making.

    SK0105, 2017, Capacity Building

  49. Propose a Recommendation of Internal Guidelines on the Use of Free On-Line Tools in Participatory Creation of Public Policies.

    SK0106, 2017, Capacity Building

  50. Create Learning Tools in the Field of Participation.

    SK0107, 2017, Capacity Building

  51. Use Educational Tools About Participation in Formal Education Using Informal Learn-Ing Methods.

    SK0108, 2017, E-Government

  52. Develop Recommendations for Embedding Participatory Processes Into Organiza-Tional Processes, Internal Guidelines and Other Documents for the Needs of Central Government Bodies.

    SK0109, 2017, Capacity Building

  53. Reassess the Implementation of the Publication of Assessments of Judges in Terms of the Clarity and Making Further Analysis Easier

    SK0110, 2017, E-Government

  54. Specify Which Court Decisions Do Not Need to Be Published.

    SK0111, 2017, E-Government

  55. Standardize Submission Requirements for Slov-Lex Portal

    SK0112, 2017, Capacity Building

  56. Draft Legislation About the Responsibility of Judges

    SK0113, 2017, E-Government

  57. Draft Legislation to Ensure Public Scrutiny of Judges

    SK0114, 2017, Judiciary

  58. Prepare Legislation That Will Ensure the Publication of the Seat of Office of Individual Prosecutors

    SK0115, 2017, E-Government

  59. Create Draft Legislation to Extend the Right to Recommend Candidates for the Post of Attorney-General.

    SK0116, 2017, Legislation & Regulation

  60. Participatory Analysis of Prosecutor's Affairs

    SK0117, 2017, E-Government

  61. In a Participatory Manner, Analyze the Selection Procedures

    SK0118, 2017, Justice

  62. Awareness-Raising About Anti-Social Activities

    SK0119, 2017, Legislation & Regulation

  63. Analyze and Evaluate Preliminary Information and Reports on Public Participation in the Process of Drafting and Commenting on Draft Legislation.

    SK0120, 2017, E-Government

  64. Analyze and Evaluate the Effectiveness of the Electronic Collective Petition.

    SK0121, 2017, E-Government

  65. Identify the Person Responsible for Implementing the Tasks of the OGP National Action Plan 2017-2019 in the Organization.

    SK0122, 2017, E-Government

  66. Coordinate the Working Group on the Implementation of the OGP National Action Plan 2017-2019.

    SK0123, 2017, OGP

  67. Develop the Final Evaluation of the OGP National Action Plan 2017-2019.

    SK0124, 2017, E-Government

  68. Prepare and Submit for the Government of the Slovak Republic the OGP National Action Plan for the Following Period.

    SK0125, 2017, E-Government

  69. List of Open Data Datasets

    SK0023, 2015, E-Government

  70. Publish Open Data

    SK0024, 2015, E-Government

  71. Survey of Open Data

    SK0025, 2015, Open Data

  72. Publish Relevant Open Datasets

    SK0026, 2015, E-Government

  73. Starred commitment Open Data Publication Strategy

    SK0027, 2015, Open Data

  74. Grant Scheme Open Data Portal

    SK0028, 2015, E-Government

  75. Web Portal Promotion Campaign

    SK0029, 2015, E-Government

  76. Evaluate Grant Funding Open Data Application

    SK0030, 2015, E-Government

  77. Digital Education Resources

    SK0031, 2015, Education

  78. Map Existing Repositories

    SK0032, 2015, Education

  79. Analyze Procurement Process for Education Resources

    SK0033, 2015, E-Government

  80. Textbook Procurement Process

    SK0034, 2015, E-Government

  81. Pilot Procurement Process

    SK0035, 2015, E-Government

  82. Raise Awareness of Education Resources

    SK0036, 2015, Education

  83. Join Multilateral Activities in Europe and Beyond That Support the Creation, Improvement, Sharing and Re-Use of Open Educational Resources.

    SK0037, 2015, Education

  84. Map Existing Scientific Repositories

    SK0038, 2015, Open Data

  85. Identify Barriers to Open Data Access

    SK0039, 2015, Open Data

  86. Submit Analysis of Open Data Publication

    SK0040, 2015, Open Data

  87. Data Publication Mechanism

    SK0041, 2015, E-Government

  88. Raise Awareness About Open Access in Academic Community

    SK0042, 2015, Capacity Building

  89. Assist Other Countries with Open Access Strategy

    SK0043, 2015, E-Government

  90. Participatory Policy-Making

    SK0044, 2015, Public Participation

  91. Workshops on Public Involvement in Policymaking

    SK0045, 2015, Capacity Building

  92. Starred commitment Develop Public Policy with Civil Society

    SK0047, 2015, Civic Space

  93. Starred commitment Develop Criteria for Evaluating Participation in Policymaking

    SK0048, 2015, Public Participation

  94. Evaluate Policy Creation

    SK0049, 2015, Public Participation

  95. Map Legislative Environments

    SK0050, 2015, Legislature

  96. Carry Out a Public Campaign to Promote the Collective Electronic Petitions.

    SK0051, 2015, Capacity Building

  97. Publish Evaluation of Justices

    SK0052, 2015, Judiciary

  98. Analyze Publication of Judicial Decisions

    SK0053, 2015, Judiciary

  99. Uniform Reporting of Judicial Decisions

    SK0054, 2015, Judiciary

  100. Publish List of Names of Prosecutors

    SK0055, 2015, Judiciary

  101. Final Evaluation of OGP Action Plan

    SK0056, 2015, OGP

  102. Develop Next Action Plan

    SK0057, 2015, OGP

  103. Starred commitment Open Data Portal Launch

    SK0001, 2012, Open Data

  104. Publishing Datasets

    SK0002, 2012, Open Data

  105. Datasets Mapping

    SK0003, 2012, Open Data

  106. Data Standards

    SK0004, 2012, Open Data

  107. Improved Register of Contracts

    SK0005, 2012, Fiscal Transparency

  108. Starred commitment Continuous Dataset Publising

    SK0006, 2012, Open Data

  109. Starred commitment ITMS Dataset

    SK0007, 2012, Open Data

  110. EU Funds and Subsidies Monitoring

    SK0008, 2012, Fiscal Transparency

  111. EU Funds and Subsidies Monitoring – Prepare Tender for Web Application

    SK0009, 2012, Open Contracting and Procurement

  112. EU Funds and Subsidies Monitoring – Portal Launch

    SK0010, 2012, E-Government

  113. Participatory Policy Making

    SK0011, 2012, Capacity Building

  114. Starred commitment Apply Participatory Policy Making

    SK0012, 2012, Public Participation

  115. Lawmaking Public Participation Rules

    SK0013, 2012, Legislation & Regulation

  116. Participatory Policy Making

    SK0014, 2012, Public Participation

  117. Collective e-Petitions

    SK0015, 2012,

  118. Collective e-Petitions – Draft Amendment

    SK0016, 2012, Legislation & Regulation

  119. OGP Steering Committee

    SK0017, 2012, OGP

  120. Transparency Council and Openess Barometer

    SK0018, 2012, Capacity Building

  121. Develop Criteria for Transparency Council and Openess Barometer

    SK0019, 2012, Capacity Building

  122. Conduct First Evaluation Using Openess Barometer

    SK0020, 2012, Capacity Building

  123. Whistleblowers Protection Act

    SK0021, 2012, Legislation & Regulation

  124. 2014-2015 Action Plan Development

    SK0022, 2012, OGP