Transparency and Participation in Health Data (ID0093)
Action Plan: Indonesia Action Plan 2018-2020
Action Plan Cycle: 2018
Lead Institution: Ministry of Social Service
Support Institution(s): 1. Ministry of Health 2. The National Team for the Acceleration of Poverty Reduction 3. Social Security Administration Body for Health, Medialink
Policy AreasE-Government, Gender, Health, Marginalized Communities, Public Participation, Public Service Delivery, Subnational, Sustainable Development Goals
January 2019 - December 2020
Ministry of Social Service
Law Number 40/2004 on National Social Protection
System and Law Number 24/2011 on Social
Protection Administration Body mandate the
government to enforce the implementation of National
Health Insurance. One of the programs is the Health
Contribution Assistance (HCA) for the poor. However,
the data of HCA is not accessible for users and it often
not in accordance with the actual condition. For
instance, as some recipients might have already
passed away, moved away, had a double identity
number, or had changes in financial circumstances
that allowed them to pay the contribution. The
inconsistency in the HCA recipients’ data happened
because people could not verify and validate the data
as they are not aware of the data platform.
On the other hand, the Minister of Social Services
Regulation Number 5/2016 on Recipient of Health
Contribution Assistance (Revised) mandates the
government to implement the mechanism of data
verification and validation participative. According to
the regulation, the public could participate in updating
HCA data through sub-district consultation forum.
However, it is not as effective as the data is not
accessible and the monitoring of its implementation
remains low. This Action Plan is committed to
empowering the participatory data update. It also
encourages the Ministry of Social Service to inform
the HCA data through an application system.
What is the public problem that
the commitment will address?
The commitment aims to support the development of
the application system and people’s participation in
updating the data. This application system will provide
the recipient’s personal information. In addition to that,
all the process of updating data will be implementing
by sub-districts. This commitment also encourages the
involvement of women group, marginalized
community, and indigenous people. The result of the
participatory data updates will be doing with the
issuance of a ministerial decree.
IRM Midterm Status Summary
2. Transparency and Collective Participation in Renewed Data on Recipient of Health Contribution Assistance
Language of the commitment as it appears in the action plan:
The commitment aims to support the development of the application system and people’s participation in updating the data. This application system will provide the recipient’s personal information. In addition to that, all the process of updating data will be implementing by sub-districts. This commitment also encourages the involvement of women group, marginalized community, and indigenous people. The result of the participatory data updates will be doing with the issuance of a ministerial decree.
- Information system application on social welfare provides all the process of updating the data as a result from the online verification. As a data platform, the system also provides accurate and valid data, enriched with their export and import features.
- The implementation of public consultation meeting through city/village forum or any other platform for renewed data on Recipient of Health Contribution Assistance.
- The availability of twelve ministerial decrees on renewed data of the HCA’s recipients based on citizen participation inputs.
Start Date: January 2019 End Date: December 2020
Context and Objectives
In January 2014, the Government of Indonesia established the Social Security Agency for Health (BPJS Kesehatan) to continue efforts to ensure comprehensive, equal, and fair universal healthcare  for all citizens. BPJS Kesehatan succeeds Askes, a now-defunct government health insurance program which was only available to civil-sector members.
BPJS Kesehatan categorizes insurance recipients into two categories  based on their economic backgrounds. The government covers the premium for those who live in poverty through a premium assistance beneficiaries (PBI)  insurance scheme. Those who do not meet the qualifications to be included in the PBI scheme are required pay their own premium. However, the law does not specify the poverty criteria in this context.
For the fiscal year of 2019,  the government increased the number of PBI recipients to 96.8 million from 92.4 million in 2018. Consequently, the budget allocation also went up from 25.5 trillion rupiah (1.8 billion USD) to 26.7 trillion rupiah (1.87 billion USD). The government based this decision on the data provided by the Ministry of Social Affairs who collaborated with the Ministry of Home Affairs at the national level and Civil Registry Offices across the nation at the local level. According to the Ministry of Social Affairs, their data are updated on a yearly basis through a verification and validation process to ensure accurate distribution of PBI. 
However, studies conducted by MediaLink, a civil society group, in East Java (Wonosobo and Sidoarjo Regencies), Central Java (Brebes Regency), and the Jakarta Special Capital Region  suggest that the PBI program does not always benefit the intended recipients. Representative from MediaLink  detailed the following issues:
- Lack of transparency: The Ministry of Social Affairs does not regularly publish data on premium assistance beneficiaries, making it difficult to monitor its distribution.
- Lack of citizen participation: The Ministry of Social Affairs does not involve citizens at any stage of its yearly data verification and validation. The studies found multiple reports of duplicated, deceased, and unidentified recipients.
- Unclear methodology and criteria to determine poverty: The Ministry of Social Affairs does not disclose the methodology or criteria it uses to collect valid data of premium assistance beneficiaries. A major criticism has been that the Ministry uses the same criteria to determine poverty across the nation, which is not feasible considering the various factors that play into the fulfilment of basic needs in different locations.
President Joko Widodo himself has publicly criticized his own cabinet for providing conflicting data on poverty rates.  The Central Bureau of Statistics (BPS) reported only 25.95 million people (9.82% of the total population size)  living in poverty in March 2018—much lower than the 92.2 million figure from the Ministry of Social Affairs and the Ministry of Health to allocate the PBI program. Minister of Finance Sri Mulyani suggested that the BPS’s statistic was the lowest poverty rate recorded in Indonesia’s history.  In contrast, however, the number of PBI recipients categorized as living in poverty by the Ministry of Social Affairs has consistently increased every year. 
The Chief Statistician at the BPS has publicly admitted the government’s statistical inconsistency. In an article released in October 2018,  the Chief Statistician explained that the Bureau measures poverty data using a standardized methodology based on the World Bank’s Handbook on Poverty and Inequality. Meanwhile, the government collects data using a different methodology. This has resulted in the publication of contrasting figures as the government tends to see poverty relative to the relevant programs. However, this practice should not continue as it can hamper the efficiency and effectiveness of government programs and public service delivery.
This commitment has the potential to provide a solution to a long-running problem in Indonesia. Successful implementation could provide the government with a policy framework to use in other similar areas. Statistical incoherence is not a problem that is exclusive to poverty data. For example, in 2016, the Ministry of Agriculture  reported a surplus of 13.03 million tons of rice. However, the BPS  reported a surplus of only 2.85 million tons. Beyond confusion, data discrepancy can misdirect the government into enacting policies that do not meet the needs and demands of the citizens.
These inconsistencies are problematic in many ways. A portion of the poor population risks not receiving the much-needed assistance intended for them. It also opens up possibilities for people to trick the system, as indicated by findings of invalid entries of recipients included in the list of beneficiaries. Additionally, given the magnitude of budget allocation for the program, invalid beneficiaries data can result in corruption by public officials to direct funds for unintended recipients or uses.
This commitment intends to address all three aspects of these problems. The development of an information system application will allow citizens to access PBI recipient data with a built-in online verification feature to enhance the efficiency of the government’s data validation process. To support this, the government has committed to incorporating citizen participation elements in the data verification and validation process through existing consultation mechanisms such as the development planning forum (Musrenbang) as well as village forums (Musdes). This will allow citizens to provide feedback to the government by proactively reporting invalid entries and indicating those who live in poverty but have been excluded from the recipient list. To ensure continued improvement, the Ministry of Social Affairs committed to issuing a Ministerial Decree verifying an updated data of PBI recipients on a monthly basis.
With proper implementation, this commitment carries a moderate potential to prevent corruption and mismanagement of public funds. By making the process transparent and involving citizens, the government can ensure that those who benefit from the premium assistance actually qualify as recipients. By the end of this action plan cycle, this commitment might trigger some changes to the management of universal healthcare provision in Indonesia, especially with the government’s commitment to update the recipient list on a monthly basis, a progress compared to the existing yearly update.
In order to properly address the problem that this commitment seeks to solve, the Ministry of Social Affairs should disclose the methodology and criteria that it has been using to assess poverty. The stark contrast between the Ministry’s figure and the one reported by the BPS suggests that the two institutions are using different methodologies.
Public data discrepancies has also been one of the reasons behind the development of the One Data Indonesia policy with its three principles: one data standard, one standard metadata, and data interoperability.  However, despite the draft having been complete for years,  the Presidential Regulation on One Data has yet to be signed into effect.
In implementing this commitment, the government could consider focusing on the following aspects:
- Publish premium assistance beneficiary data (including allocation and distribution) to ensure transparency throughout the process;
- Optimize existing avenues of citizen participation such as village forums (Musdes) and development planning forums (Musrenbang) as well as public consultation forums (FKP) rather than develop a new mechanism;
- Proactively engage vulnerable and marginalized communities to ensure their inclusion in the premium assistance scheme; and
- Coordinate with the BPS as the authoritative government statistical bureau to streamline the methodology and criteria used in collecting poverty data.
 Social Security Agency for Health, “Sejarah Perjalanan Jaminan Sosial di Indonesia” (2018), https://bpjs-kesehatan.go.id/bpjs/index.php/pages/detail/2013/4.
 Government of Indonesia, “Undang-Undang No. 40/2004 tentang Sistem Jaminan Sosial Nasional” (2004), http://www.depkes.go.id/resources/download/general/UU%20No.%2040%20Th%202004%20ttg%20Sistem%20Jaminan%20Sosial%20Nasional.pdf.
 Premium Assistance Beneficiaries (PBI) is the common translation used by multiple official documents to refer to the government’s “Penerima Bantuan Iuran” insurance scheme (see National Team for the Acceleration of Poverty Reduction, “The Road to National Health Insurance (JKN)” (2015), http://www.tnp2k.go.id/images/uploads/downloads/FINAL_JKN_road%20to%20national%20health%20insurance.pdf.) The English translation of Indonesia’s fifth action plan’s original text refers to this term as “Health Contribution Assistance,” a translation that is not found in any other publications. In this report, the IRM researcher uses “Premium Assistance Beneficiaries” (PBI) to refer to the same subject matter.
 CNN Indonesia, “Jokowi Tambah 4 Juta Orang Miskin Penerima Bantuan Iuran BPJS” (9 Jan. 2019), https://www.cnnindonesia.com/ekonomi/20190109131334-78-359541/jokowi-tambah-4-juta-orang-miskin-penerima-bantuan-iuran-bpjs.
 Hendra Kusuma, “Jokowi Pertanyakan Simpang Siur Data Kemiskinan” (Okezone, 2016), https://economy.okezone.com/read/2016/04/26/20/1372844/jokowi-pertanyakan-simpang-siur-data-kemiskinan.
 Central Bureau of Statistics, “Persentase Penduduk Miskin Maret 2018 Turun Menjadi 9.92 Persen” (2018), https://www.bps.go.id/pressrelease/2018/07/16/1483/persentase-penduduk-miskin-maret-2018-turun-menjadi-9-82-persen.html.
 BBC, “Empat Hal di Balik Angka Kemiskinan Indonesia yang Disebut Mencatat ‘Sejarah’” (18 Jul. 2018), https://www.bbc.com/indonesia/trensosial-44861258.
 Hendra Kusuma, “Kepala BPS Blak-Blakan Soal Data dan Fakta Angka Kemiskinan di RI” (Detik Finance, 2018), https://finance.detik.com/wawancara-khusus/d-4160586/kepala-bps-blak-blakan-soal-data-dan-fakta-angka-kemiskinan-di-ri.
 Samuel Pablo, “Data Beras BPS dan Kementan Berbeda, Ini Penjelasannya” (CNBC Indonesia, 2018), https://www.cnbcindonesia.com/news/20181025105653-4-38964/data-beras-bps-dan-kementan-berbeda-ini-penjelasannya.
 Open Government Indonesia National Secretariat, “Sosialisasi Rancangan Peraturan Presiden tentang Satu Data Indonesia” (2017), https://ogi.bappenas.go.id/news/223/sosialisasi-rancangan-peraturan-presiden-tentang-satu-data-indonesia.
 CNN Indonesia, “Pemerintah Terbitkan Perpres Satu Data Akhir Tahun Ini” (27 Nov. 2018), https://www.cnnindonesia.com/ekonomi/20181126142128-92-349299/pemerintah-terbitkan-perpres-satu-data-akhir-tahun-ini.
Platform for Improved Legislative Data and Information
ID0106, 2018, Capacity Building
Make Legislative Information More Accessible
ID0107, 2018, E-Government
Improving Documentation and Access to Information on Parliamentary Sessions
ID0108, 2018, E-Government
Formulation of the Open Parliament Indonesia Roadmap
ID0109, 2018, Capacity Building
Establishing the Open Parliament Indonesia Institution
ID0110, 2018, Legislative
Extractives Data Management
ID0092, 2018, Anti-Corruption
Transparency and Participation in Health Data
ID0093, 2018, E-Government
Public Service Data
ID0094, 2018, E-Government
Participatory Education Budget
ID0095, 2018, Capacity Building
Participatory Village Government Planning
ID0096, 2018, Capacity Building
Civic Participation in E-Legislation Portal
ID0097, 2018, E-Government
Election Data Openness
ID0098, 2018, Access to Information
Health Service Data
ID0099, 2018, E-Government
Public Consultation Reform
ID0100, 2018, Capacity Building
LAPOR!-SP4N Quality Improvements
ID0101, 2018, Capacity Building
Complaint System for Environment
ID0102, 2018, Anti-Corruption
Government Procurement Transparency
ID0103, 2018, Anti-Corruption
Strenthening Open Data
ID0104, 2018, Access to Information
Improvements to Legal Aid
ID0105, 2018, Access to Justice
Open Government Strategic Plan
Public Agency Consultation Guidlines
ID0048, 2016, Capacity Building
Good Governance Manual and Public Consultations to Reach SDGs
ID0049, 2016, Capacity Building
Geospatial Information Management
ID0050, 2016, Capacity Building
Monitoring Public Services by Ombudsman
ID0051, 2016, E-Government
Ombudsman Overseeing Public Services
Public Services at Ministry of Education and Culture
ID0053, 2016, Capacity Building
Public Services at Ministry of Religious Affairs
Development of LAPOR into SP4N
ID0055, 2016, Capacity Building
Public Complaints Administration Integration into LAPOR!-SP4N
ID0056, 2016, Capacity Building
LAPOR!- SP4N as Citizen Aspiration and Complaints Platform
ID0057, 2016, Capacity Building
1 Million Complaints Via LAPOR! by 2016
ID0058, 2016, E-Government
LAPOR! Public Accountability
ID0059, 2016, Public Participation
Interconnectivity of SOEs to LAPOR!
ID0060, 2016, Capacity Building
Environment and Forrest Sector Public Complaints
ID0061, 2016, E-Government
Strengthened Village Governance
ID0062, 2016, Capacity Building
Public Information Disclosure Through Ministry of Health
ID0063, 2016, E-Government
Public Information Disclosure Through Ministry of Education and Culture
ID0064, 2016, E-Government
Public Information Disclosure Through Ministry of Research Technology and Higher Education
ID0065, 2016, E-Government
Public Information Disclosure at Higher Education Institutions
ID0066, 2016, E-Government
Budget Transparency Information System
ID0067, 2016, E-Government
Inter Agency Data Governance
ID0068, 2016, Capacity Building
Open Data Implementation
ID0069, 2016, Capacity Building
Public Complaints Channels
ID0070, 2016, Capacity Building
Information Disclosure at Village Levels
ID0071, 2016, E-Government
Increase in Number of Open Data
ID0072, 2016, Access to Information
Improved Public Services
ID0073, 2016, Capacity Building
Transparency in the Regional Government Budget System
ID0074, 2016, E-Government
Procurement Disclosure in Bandung
ID0075, 2016, Anti-Corruption
Enhancing the LAPOR! Application
ID0076, 2016, E-Government
Public Complaints Services in the City of Bandung
ID0077, 2016, Public Participation
Information Disclosure on Citizens’ Proposals to DPRD
ID0078, 2016, E-Government
Greater Public Participation in Disseminating Development Information
ID0079, 2016, Education
"One Data Indonesia” in Semarang.
ID0080, 2016, Access to Information
One Data Basis for Semarang
ID0081, 2016, Access to Information
Enhanced Public Information Disclosure
ID0082, 2016, E-Government
Public Monitoring of Services in Semarang
ID0083, 2016, Capacity Building
Access to Information on DPRD
ID0084, 2016, Capacity Building
Data Governance of DPRD
ID0085, 2016, Fiscal Openness
Infrastructure for Fublic Information Disclosure
ID0086, 2016, Capacity Building
Public Information Communications Strategy
ID0087, 2016, Subnational
Information Through Jakarta.Go.Id Portal
ID0088, 2016, Capacity Building
Public Services Complaint Channel
ID0089, 2016, Public Participation
Strengthening of Data Governance
ID0090, 2016, Access to Information
Public Participation in Development Planning
ID0091, 2016, E-Government
Strengthening Transparency Infrastructure of Public Bodies
Strengthening Infrastructure of Central and Local Information Commission
ID0029, 2014, Capacity Building
Strengthening Institutional and Human Resources Infrastructure for Public Services
ID0030, 2014, Public Participation
Improve Quality of Openness in Health Services
ID0031, 2014, Health
Improve Quality of Openness in Education Services
ID0032, 2014, E-Government
Accelerate Open and Good Governance Practices in Law Enforcement
ID0033, 2014, E-Government
Accelerate Open and Good Governance Practices in Goods and Services Procurement
ID0034, 2014, Anti-Corruption
Accelerate Open and Good Governance Practices in Business Development and Investment Sector
ID0035, 2014, Capacity Building
Accelerate Open and Good Governance Practices in Land Affairs
ID0036, 2014, Land Rights and Spatial Planning
Accelerate Open and Good Governance Practices in Management of Migrant Workers
ID0037, 2014, Citizenship & Immigration
Accelerate Open and Good Governance Practices in Hajj Management
Accelerate Open and Good Governance Practices in Natural Resources Management
ID0039, 2014, Anti-Corruption
Improve Public Participation in Development Planning
ID0040, 2014, E-Government
Improve Public Participation in House of Representative and Regional Representative Council
ID0041, 2014, Legislative
Improve Public Participation in Environmental Preservation
ID0042, 2014, Environment and Climate
Community Empowerment to Handle Poor Society and People with Disabilities and Special Needs
ID0043, 2014, Health
Community Empowerment to Support Environmental Sustainability
ID0044, 2014, Environment and Climate
Community Empowerment to Strengthen Agriculture Sector
ID0045, 2014, Capacity Building
Community Empowerment to Develop Creative Sector
ID0046, 2014, E-Government
Motor Vehicle Services
ID0013, 2013, Infrastructure & Transport
Public School Funding
ID0014, 2013, Anti-Corruption
Hajj Services: Ministry of Religious Affairs
ID0015, 2013, Anti-Corruption
Marriage Services: Office of Religious Affairs
Land Affairs Transparency
ID0018, 2013, E-Government
ID0019, 2013, Anti-Corruption
Transparency and Accountability in Natural Resources Management Activity
ID0020, 2013, Access to Information
Oil, Gas, and Mining Revenue Transparency
ID0021, 2013, Anti-Corruption
Appointments of Information and Documentation Management Officials (PPID) in National Agencies and Enactments of their Standard Operating Procedure
ID0022, 2013, Access to Information
Formulation of a Working Plan and a Well-Operated Tracking System for Business/Investment Licensing Servies in 10 Provinces and 10 Regencies/Cities
ID0023, 2013, E-Government
Encouraging the Acceleration of the Operational Formation for Information Services in Local Government through the Formation of Local Government's PPID and its Tools
ID0024, 2013, Access to Information
Encouraging Comprehensive Implementation of Open Government in Pilot Province/Regency/City
ID0025, 2013, Subnational
Integration of Performance-Based Budgeting
ID0026, 2013, Fiscal Openness
Ensuring the Publication of Budget Plan (RKA/DIPA)
ID0027, 2013, Fiscal Openness
ID0001, 2011, E-Government
ID0002, 2011, Education
ID0003, 2011, Health
ID0004, 2011, Dispute Resolution & Legal Assistance
High Corruption Risk
ID0005, 2011, E-Government
Civil Service Recruitment
ID0006, 2011, Capacity Building
ID0007, 2011, E-Government
National Budget Information
ID0008, 2011, Anti-Corruption
District Budget Information
ID0009, 2011, Fiscal Openness
ID0010, 2011, Anti-Corruption
ID0011, 2011, E-Government
ID0012, 2011, Anti-Corruption