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Extractive Industries

Transparency and accountability in the extractive industry sector is crucial to mitigating the effects of the “resource curse” in countries endowed with natural resources.

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Overview

More than 50 OGP countries depend on oil, gas and minerals as their most important sources of government and export revenues. However, evidence shows that their performance on human development indicators compares unfavorably to less-endowed countries. At the root of this underperformance is the failure by governments to properly address the institutional and policy challenges that come with the governance of natural resources.

Open government approaches can help detect corruption, safeguard community interests, improve the investment climate, and support environmental sustainability. 

Extractive industry commitments are a common area of activity within OGP and they are more frequently impactful and complete than commitments in other policy areas. According to assessments by OGP’s Independent Reporting Mechanism (IRM), more than one in four extractives commitments have the potential to transform the status quo – double the rate of other commitments.

In 2018, OGP and the Extractives Industry Transparency Initiative (EITI) signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) to promote work across several areas of extractives, including beneficial ownership, state-owned enterprises, contract transparency, gender, and environment.


Oil rig in the yards

Nigeria’s Push for Beneficial Ownership Transparency in Procurement and in the Extractives Sector

Lessons from Reformers: As a resource-rich country that has been plagued by grand corruption, beneficial ownership transparency has emerged as an important tool in Nigeria.


Recommendations

  • Find synergies between Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI) and OGP: OGP members can improve extractives industries transparency by applying policies like open contracting and beneficial ownership to extractives sector management.
    • In Ghana, reformers have committed to opening up the contract process and publishing information about the beneficial owners of contracts.
    • Armenia is piloting a beneficial ownership registry with national metal mining companies before expanding to all sectors.
  • Require that governments collect and disclose beneficial ownership information: including levels of ownership and any politically exposed people, and link this collection and screening to licensing systems and contract disclosure portals.
    • Nigeria created its first beneficial ownership registry to combat grand corruption, including in the oil industry. The country is also pursuing beneficial ownership through EITI that will require public disclosure of beneficial owners of oil, gas, and mining companies.
    • Ghana committed to opening up the procurement processes, publishing contracts in extractives and providing information on the beneficial owners of contracts.
  • Go beyond the EITI standard in environmental disclosure to consider climate change mitigation and alternative-use analysis. 
    • Georgia committed to publish environmental risks and impacts before and during project planning, consulting with the scientific community and the general public throughout the process.
  • Publicly disclose licenses and publish information on the licensing process.
    • Bulgaria created a public information system to disclose data about extractive resources, including registries of exploration licenses and concessions.
    • Indonesia published data and information regarding oil, gas, and mining activities, including a list of mining business license holders.
  • Publish data on state-owned enterprises (SOEs). 
    • Mexico publishes bidding decisions and contracts entered by the state-owned oil company. 
    • Mongolia requires financial and operational reporting by state-owned enterprises.
  • Ensure Equitable Impacts: Perform gender-responsive analysis in the project planning phase and publish environmental, health, and social impact assessments with gender-differentiated impacts of extractive industries.

Resources

  1. How to Read and Understand Mining Contracts

    This resource from NRGI and EITI highlights strong contract clauses and explore how others could be improved.

    2014, Outbound Link, Web Page

  2. Seeking Synergy: OGP & EITI

    This paper explores how OGP and EITI members can leverage both platforms to make meaningful reforms in the extractives industry,…

    2019, Research Product, Web Page

  3. Oil Contracts: How to Read and Understand Them

    In late October 2012, OpenOil gathered a group of world class oil experts and professionals to jointly write a book…

    2012, Outbound Link, Web Page

  4. Environmental Democracy Index (WRI)

    This is an archived site that was created in 2015 through the research of WRI and its partners to show…

    2015, Outbound Link, Web Page

  5. Closing the Gap: Strengthening the Development and Implementation of Natural Resource Commitments in OGP

    This report focuses on the implementation of natural resource commitments for better development and open government outcomes.

    2019, Document, PDF

  6. Disclosing Contracts in the Natural Resource Sector (English)

    This issue brief is a product of collaboration between the OGP Openness in Natural Resources Working Group and its co-anchors:…

    2017, Document, PDF

  7. Disclosing Environmental Information in the Natural Resource Sector (English)

    This issue brief is a product of collaboration between the OGP Openness in Natural Resources Working Group and its co-anchors:…

    2019, Document, PDF

  8. Disclosing Beneficial Ownership Information in the Natural Resource Sector (English)

    , Outbound Link, Web Page

  9. NRGI Primers: A Series About Resource Governance

    The Natural Resource Governance Institute (NRGI) has created a series of short, illustrated overviews of key topics in their portfolio…

    2015, Outbound Link, Web Page

  10. Guidance Notes on the EITI Standard

    The following guidance notes, standard terms of reference and templates have been issued by the EITI International Secretariat to provide…

    2018, Outbound Link, Web Page

  11. The EITI Standard

    Explore the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative's (EITI) guide to implementing the EITI Standard.

    , Outbound Link, Web Page

  12. The Open Contracting Data Standard

    The Open Contracting Data Standard (OCDS), is a free, non-proprietary open data standard for public contracting, implemented by over 30…

    , Outbound Link, Web Page

  13. Resource Governance Index (NRGI)

    The 2017 Resource Governance Index, gathered by the Natural Resource Governance Institute (NRGI), measures the quality of governance in the…

    2017, Outbound Link, Web Page

  14. Disclosing Beneficial Ownership Information in the Natural Resource Sector (French)

    This issue brief is a product of collaboration between the OGP Openness in Natural Resources Working Group and its co-anchors:…

    2017, Document, PDF

  15. Transparency International's Accountable Mining Resources

    Transparency International’s Accountable Mining programme is developing a series of ‘maps’ to demystify the licensing process in countries around the…

    2020, Outbound Link, Web Page

  16. Using the EITI Standard to Combat Corruption: Lessons From Transparency International's Mining Research in Five Countries

    The oil, gas and mining sectors are some of the world’s most corruption-prone industries. The renewed focus on combatting corruption…

    2020, Outbound Link, Web Page


Commitments

  1. Starred commitment Adoption of the Environmental Assessment Code

    GE0057, 2016, Anti-Corruption

  2. Starred commitment Well-Being Duty

    UK0089, 2016, Anti-Corruption

  3. Starred commitment Energy Sector Watch: Transparent, Accessible and Participatory

    CL0032, 2016, Anti-Corruption

  4. Starred commitment Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative

    UA0065, 2016, Anti-Corruption

  5. Starred commitment National Water Plan

    UY0072, 2016, Anti-Corruption

  6. Starred commitment Commissions for Extractive Industries Transparency

    PE0054, 2015, Anti-Corruption

  7. Starred commitment Citizen Participation in Transparency and Royalties

    CO0046, 2015, Anti-Corruption

  8. Starred commitment Mandatory Reporting on Extractives

    CA0036, 2014, Anti-Corruption

  9. Starred commitment Strengthening Environmental Democracy

    CL0031, 2014, Anti-Corruption

  10. Starred commitment Single Treasure Account

    SL0005, 2014, Anti-Corruption

  11. Starred commitment Extractive Transparency

    UK0062, 2013, Anti-Corruption

  12. Starred commitment Initiate Fiscal Transparency in the Extractive Industry

    PH0027, 2013, Anti-Corruption

  13. Starred commitment Implement the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative

    US0037, 2013, Anti-Corruption

  14. Starred commitment Royalties and Transparency Initiative Extractive Industries: Eiti

    CO0025, 2012, Anti-Corruption

  15. Starred commitment Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative

    UA0011, 2012, Anti-Corruption

  16. Starred commitment Mining Industry and Underground Resources

    BG0006, 2012, Anti-Corruption

  17. Starred commitment Public Information System on Mineral Resources

    BG0008, 2012, Anti-Corruption

  18. Regional Web Platforms on Extractive Industry Activities

    PE0095, 2019, Anti-Corruption

  19. Making Energy Statistics Available

    NO0055, 2019, Anti-Corruption

  20. Beneficial Ownership Registry

    SL0025, 2019, Anti-Corruption

  21. Natural Resource Transparency

    UK0094, 2019, Anti-Corruption

  22. Beneficial Ownership Transparency

    MN0044, 2019, Anti-Corruption

  23. Contract Transparency in Extractives

    MN0045, 2019, Anti-Corruption

  24. Implement EITI

    PH0061, 2019, Anti-Corruption

  25. Implementation of the Fisheries Transparency Initiative (FiTI)

    SYC0003, 2019, Anti-Corruption

  26. Transparency in Extractive Industries

    AR0079, 2019, Anti-Corruption

  27. Open Contracting and Licensing in Extractives

    NG0018, 2019, Anti-Corruption

  28. Implement EITI Standard

    NG0019, 2019, Anti-Corruption

  29. Mining Sector Transparency

    BF0016, 2019, Anti-Corruption

  30. Roadmap for Implementing EITI

    EC0005, 2019, Anti-Corruption

  31. Transparency of Forestry, Water, and Fishing Management

    MX0084, 2019, Anti-Corruption

  32. Disclosure of Beneficial Owners

    MX0085, 2019, Anti-Corruption

  33. National Energy Efficiency Plan

    UY0130, 2018, Anti-Corruption

  34. Industry, Energy and Mining Data Publication

    UY0131, 2018, Anti-Corruption

  35. Open Data

    HN0062, 2018, Anti-Corruption

  36. Transparency in Extractive Industries

    HN0078, 2018, Anti-Corruption

  37. Join EITI

    NL0030, 2018, Anti-Corruption

  38. Join EITI

    TN0041, 2018, Anti-Corruption

  39. Open Contracting in Hydrocarbons

    TN0042, 2018, Anti-Corruption

  40. EITI Process

    PNG0007, 2018, Anti-Corruption

  41. Participatory Tech in Extractives

    COT0004, 2018, Anti-Corruption

  42. Extractives Data Management

    ID0092, 2018, Anti-Corruption

  43. Complaint System for Environment

    ID0102, 2018, Anti-Corruption

  44. Beneficial Ownership Register

    AM0037, 2018, Anti-Corruption

  45. Mining Data Disclosure

    KG0015, 2018, Anti-Corruption

  46. Database of Natural Resources

    UA0079, 2018, Anti-Corruption

  47. EITI Online Data

    UA0083, 2018, Anti-Corruption

  48. Open Data/Citizen Navigation Portal

    LR0036, 2017, Anti-Corruption

  49. Promote Access to Information of Public Funds Linked to Extractive Activities in Multilevel Instances

    PE0069, 2017, Anti-Corruption

  50. Financial Transparency - EITI Standard

    DE0005, 2017, Anti-Corruption

  51. Developing a New Transparency Portal for Madrid City Council

    MAD0002, 2017, Anti-Corruption

  52. Extractives Sector Transparency

    GH0024, 2017, Anti-Corruption

  53. Philippine Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative

    PH0052, 2017, Anti-Corruption

  54. Integrated Mining Information System

    AR0040, 2017, Anti-Corruption

  55. Open Contracting

    NG0002, 2017, Anti-Corruption

  56. Extractive Sector Transparency

    NG0003, 2017, Anti-Corruption

  57. Anti-Corruption Activity Coordination

    NG0009, 2017, Anti-Corruption

  58. Citizen Participation in the Establishment, Implementation and Social Control of the Commitments Made by the Ministry of Mines and Energy and Stakeholders

    CO0062, 2017, Anti-Corruption

  59. National Environmental Act (NEA) Amendments

    LK0007, 2016, Anti-Corruption

  60. Publish the Number of Carats of Diamond Exported and Accompanying Kimberly Process Certificates

    CI0001, 2016, Anti-Corruption

  61. Create and Operationalize 5 Local Mining Development Committees (CDLM)

    CI0002, 2016, Anti-Corruption

  62. Transparency of Contracts of Public Resource Exploiting

    MN0032, 2016, Anti-Corruption

  63. Information Transparency of the Owners of the Entities with Rights to Use Mineral Resources

    MN0033, 2016, Anti-Corruption

  64. Make Licenses, Information and Activities of the Companies Transparent and Effective by Government

    MN0034, 2016, Anti-Corruption

  65. Increasing Transparency in Extractive Industries

    AZ0046, 2016, Anti-Corruption

  66. Ensuring Private Sector Accountability and Involvement in National Climate Change Action

    MK0120, 2016, Anti-Corruption

  67. Natural Resource Transparency

    UK0064, 2016, Anti-Corruption

  68. Implement the Extractives Sector Transparency Measures Act

    CA0058, 2016, Anti-Corruption

  69. Resilient Communities

    HN0058, 2016, Anti-Corruption

  70. Extractive Industry Transparency Initiative (EITI)

    MW0005, 2016, Anti-Corruption

  71. Codelco Transparency Website

    CL0035, 2016, Anti-Corruption

  72. Country-By-Country Reporting

    NO0052, 2016, Anti-Corruption

  73. Joining the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative "EITI"

    TN0021, 2016, Anti-Corruption

  74. Geospatial Maritime Data

    GR0042, 2016, Anti-Corruption

  75. Marine and Maritime Activity

    GR0044, 2016, Anti-Corruption

  76. Environmental Management Information Portal

    ZA0019, 2016, Anti-Corruption

  77. Reducing Vulnerability and Risks Associated Variability and Climate Change, Generating, Disseminating and Articulating Date, Affordable, Public and Binding on the Public Decision-Making Information.

    MX0074, 2016, Anti-Corruption

  78. Publish Oil and Gas Contracts

    KE0013, 2016, Anti-Corruption

  79. Public Environmental Information and Natural Resources

    PY0030, 2016, Anti-Corruption

  80. Extractive Industries Transparency

    AU0003, 2016, Anti-Corruption

  81. Access to Government Data

    AU0010, 2016, Anti-Corruption

  82. Environmental Monitoring Points

    UY0070, 2016, Anti-Corruption

  83. Introduction of Electronic Licensing System in the Field of Natural Resources Application

    GE0044, 2016, Anti-Corruption

  84. Publication of Energy Data

    UY0075, 2016, Anti-Corruption

  85. Extractive Industries' Transparency

    PH0032, 2015, Anti-Corruption

  86. Extractive Industries Transparency

    US0083, 2015, Anti-Corruption

  87. Transparency in Extractive Industries

    FR0010, 2015, Anti-Corruption

  88. Citizen Participation and Accountability in the Extractive Sector

    CO0040, 2015, Anti-Corruption

  89. Support Capacity Building for Extractives Transparency

    US0103, 2015, Anti-Corruption

  90. Map Investments

    CO0045, 2015, Anti-Corruption

  91. Environmental Public Expenditure Management

    CO0049, 2015, Anti-Corruption

  92. Public Information on Land and Natural Resource Reform

    LR0010, 2015, Anti-Corruption

  93. Publish and Revise 70% of Mining and Agricultural Lease Agreements and Contracts

    SL0009, 2014, Anti-Corruption

  94. Open Data Portal for Transparency in Fiscal and Extractive Transactions

    SL0011, 2014, Anti-Corruption

  95. Adherence to the Global Compact of the United Nations Organization

    SV0075, 2014, Anti-Corruption

  96. Knowing the EITI and Its Results.

    HN0042, 2014, Anti-Corruption

  97. Tanzania to Fulfill Its EITI Commitments by June 2016

    TZ0030, 2014, Anti-Corruption

  98. To Audit the Accounts of the Ministry of Energy and Energy Affairs to International Standards

    TT0011, 2014, Anti-Corruption

  99. To Make Publicly Available the Cadastre of Licenses and Contracts for the Exploration and Production of Oil and Gas in Trinidad and Tobago

    TT0012, 2014, Anti-Corruption

  100. To Include the Mineral Sector (Starting with National Quarries Company Ltd) in the TTEITI Reporting Mechanism

    TT0013, 2014, Anti-Corruption

  101. Development of an "Open Data" Platform Dedicated to Information Dealing with Oil and Mine Sector Investment

    TN0018, 2014, Anti-Corruption

  102. Accelerate Open and Good Governance Practices in Natural Resources Management

    ID0039, 2014, Anti-Corruption

  103. Implementation and Monitoring of the EITI Initiative

    GT0021, 2014, Anti-Corruption

  104. Digitization and publication of data in the “Republican Geological Fund” SNCO

    AM0016, 2014, Anti-Corruption

  105. Promote Transparency and Accountability in the Management of Natural Resources to Ensure That Revenues from Extractive Industries Are Used to Generate Social Welfare.

    GT0028, 2014, Anti-Corruption

  106. Ensuring Transparency in Mining

    AM0017, 2014, Anti-Corruption

  107. Transparency of Underground Resources Act

    BG0033, 2014, Anti-Corruption

  108. Compliance with EITI

    UA0040, 2014, Anti-Corruption

  109. Develop Central Information Database of Minerals, Oil, and Land Tenure License Owners, Open to the Public.

    MN0004, 2014, Anti-Corruption

  110. Ensure Transparency All Agreements on Investment, Stability and Production- Sharing of Public-Owned Resources Such as Water, Minerals, Oil and Land.

    MN0005, 2014, Anti-Corruption

  111. Extractive Industry Revenue Act

    SL0006, 2014, Anti-Corruption

  112. Scaling up Extractive Industry Transparency Initiatives

    SL0007, 2014, Anti-Corruption

  113. Extractive Sector Revenue Management

    GH0005, 2013, Anti-Corruption

  114. Transparency in the Management of Oil and Gas Revenues

    NO0034, 2013, Anti-Corruption

  115. Make Fossil Fuel Subsidies More Transparent

    US0038, 2013, Anti-Corruption

  116. Forest Management

    ID0019, 2013, Anti-Corruption

  117. Transparency and Accountability in Natural Resources Management Activity

    ID0020, 2013, Anti-Corruption

  118. Oil, Gas, and Mining Revenue Transparency

    ID0021, 2013, Anti-Corruption

  119. Open and Participative Entrepreneurial Background

    MX0048, 2013, Anti-Corruption

  120. Oil for the Benefit of All

    MX0059, 2013, Anti-Corruption

  121. Mining for Everyone

    MX0060, 2013, Anti-Corruption

  122. Mexico Accession to the Transparency Initiative Extractive Industries

    MX0063, 2013, Anti-Corruption

  123. Extractive Industries Transparency

    LR0003, 2013, Anti-Corruption

  124. Implementation of the Extractive Industry Transparency Initiative

    AZ0031, 2012, Anti-Corruption

  125. Disclosure of Income from Extractive Industries

    AZ0032, 2012, Anti-Corruption

  126. Disclosure of Annual EITI Reports

    AZ0033, 2012, Anti-Corruption

  127. Implementation of the EITI Recommendations

    AL0030, 2012, Anti-Corruption

  128. Public Participation in Environmental Matters

    CL0019, 2012, Anti-Corruption

  129. Initiating Discussions to Join the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI).

    JO0033, 2012, Anti-Corruption

  130. Country by Country Reporting in the Extractive and Forestry Industries

    DK0022, 2012, Anti-Corruption

  131. Law on the Underground Resources

    BG0007, 2012, Anti-Corruption

  132. Transparency of Managing Mineral Resources

    BG0009, 2012, Anti-Corruption

  133. Streamlining Environmental Assessment Procedures

    ES0011, 2012, Anti-Corruption

  134. Environmental Issues Access

    PE0010, 2012, Anti-Corruption

  135. EITI Commission

    PE0011, 2012, Anti-Corruption

  136. Transparency in the Management of Oil and Gas Revenues / Financial Transparency

    NO0010, 2011, Anti-Corruption

  137. Provide Enforcement and Compliance Data Online

    US0004, 2011, Anti-Corruption

  138. Implement the EITI

    US0019, 2011, Anti-Corruption

  139. Partnership to Build on Recent Progress

    US0020, 2011, Anti-Corruption

  140. Corporate Accountability D: Mexico’s Joining the EITI

    MX0007, 2011, Anti-Corruption

  141. Environmental Openness

    ID0012, 2011, Anti-Corruption

  142. Mining Projects Database

    MX0013, 2011, Anti-Corruption

  143. Publish PEMEX Donation Data

    MX0014, 2011, Anti-Corruption

  144. Publish PEMEX Contract Data

    MX0016, 2011, Anti-Corruption

  145. Regulatory Search Engines (Energy)

    MX0024, 2011, Anti-Corruption


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