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Nigeria

Enhance Participation of the Vulnerable (NG0028)

Overview

At-a-Glance

Action Plan: Nigeria Action Plan 2019-2021

Action Plan Cycle: 2019

Status: Active

Institutions

Lead Institution: Federal Ministry of Women Affairs / Ministry of Humanitarian Affairs, Disaster Management and Social Development

Support Institution(s): Federal Ministry of Women Affairs, Federal Ministry of Justice, Federal Ministry of Youth Development, Ministry of Humanitarian Affairs, Disaster Management and Social Development, Women Development Center, National Population Council (NPC), NIMC, and Federal Ministry of Works and Housing, all MDAs. Accountability Lab, Centre for Social Justice, FIDA, Civil Society Legislative Advocacy Centre, WRAPA, Women trust fund, National Council of Women Society (NCWS), Association of Small Scale Agro Producers in Nigeria (ASSAPIN), Women Centre for Self-Empowerment and Development (WOCSED), NACCIMA Women Group (NAWORG),Women in Extractives, Joint National Association of Persons with Disabilities (JONAPWED), Centre for Disabilities, National Association of Women Journalist (NAWOJ), Hold the Age, Rule of Law and Empowerment Initiative, Partners West Africa Nigeria (PWAN), African Centre for Leadership, Strategy & Development (Centre LSD), She First Initiative, Inclusiveness, Rights and Advocacy Foundation, etc.

Policy Areas

Capacity Building, E-Government, Gender, Infrastructure & Transport, Legislation & Regulation, Legislative, Marginalized Communities, Subnational, Sustainable Development Goals

IRM Review

IRM Report: Nigeria Design Report 2019-2021

Starred: Pending IRM Review

Early Results: Pending IRM Review

Design i

Verifiable: Yes

Relevant to OGP Values: Civic Participation

Potential Impact:

Implementation i

Completion: Pending IRM Review

Description

Brief description:
Definition, identification and NEEDs assessment of marginalized groups, implementing gender and inclusive programmes in Nigeria.
Women, young people, older persons, persons with disabilities and marginalized groups actively participate in governance and decision-making processes.
Effective participation and representation of women, young people, older persons, persons with disabilities, and marginalized groups in governance and decision-making processes, ensure implementation of existing laws and policies that affect women, young people, older persons, persons with disabilities, and marginalized groups, e.g. Affirmative action.

General problem:
There is inadequate engagement, representation, and participation of women, young people, older persons, persons with disabilities, and marginalized groups throughout the entire governance and decision-making processes in Nigeria. The lack of inclusive engagement is reflected in the development of policies/programmes, budget preparation, and implementation. This results in women, young people, older persons, persons with disabilities, and marginalized groups not having a voice, thus not being able to benefit from the projects captured in the budget. Additionally, there are laws & policies in place to protect women, young people, older persons, persons with disabilities, and marginalized groups, for example, Disability Act, Child Rights Act, National Youth Policy, and the National Gender Policy. However, the objectives in these acts and policy are not implemented as the structures and processes are not in place.

Specific OGP issue:
These commitments will ensure Institutionalized transparency and accountability mechanisms for more inclusive engagement including women, young people, older persons, persons with disabilities, and marginalized groups across the entire governance and decision-making processes.

The commitments will ensure increased voice of women, young people, older persons, persons with disabilities, and marginalized groups, addressing systemic barriers, and improving inclusive services for all citizens. The commitment should, therefore, mainstream gender in all OGP thematic working groups.

The commitment will ensure the design and implementation of a policy audit. The audit will identify relevant policies to achieve inclusiveness, identify gaps in those policies, level of implementation and compliance, and make recommendations.
Ensure proper implementation of existing laws, policies and affirmative actions that affect women, young people, older persons, persons with disabilities, and marginalized groups in Nigeria.

Rationale for the commitment:
1. To ensure that all OGP commitments are inclusive and beneficial to women, young people, older persons, persons with disabilities, and marginalized groups.
2. To ensure that policy-making processes are inclusive, knowledge-based, and locally driven that will benefit all citizens in Nigeria.
3. The Ministry of Women Affairs and Social Development / Ministry of Humanitarian Affairs, Disaster Management and Social Development will lead the implementation of the milestones in collaboration with other relevant MDAs.
4. Given the relevant Ministry has the primary responsibility for the coordination of the implementation of the National Gender Policy, the Disability Act, National Youth Policy based on its mandate as the key national machinery for the Federal Government of Nigeria. Hence the Federal Government of Nigeria will demonstrate political will to implement the Disability Act, NotTooYoungToRun Act and sign the Gender Equality Bill.

Main objective:
1. Ensure inclusion, participation and representation of women, young people, older persons, persons with disabilities, and marginalized groups in the entire governance processes.
2. Effective implementation of legal and policy frameworks to benefit women, young people, older persons, persons with disabilities, and marginalized groups.
3. Ensure proper implementation of affirmative action and laws for women, young people, older persons, persons with disabilities, and other marginalized groups.
4. Increase access & control over social, economic and political assets and resources for women, young people, older persons, persons with disabilities, and marginalized groups.
5. Provide an enabling environment in all MDAs to encourage full women participation in the governance and decision-making process for example crèche, nurseries, etc.

Anticipated impact:
1. Existing laws and policies for women, young people, older persons, persons with disabilities, and marginalized groups are significantly implemented.
2. Affirmative action of 35% representation of women in governance implemented (political positions/offices and appointment) at the national, the OGP compliant states and integrated within the Federal Character Principle.
3. Women, young people, older persons, persons with disabilities, and other marginalized groups’ participation in the governance and decision-making processes significantly increased to improve the entire governance value chain from conception, planning, design, implementation, monitoring and evaluation.
4. National shelter/for older persons and /temporary home for women, girls/children survivors of sexual and gender violence established in each of the six geopolitical zones of the country.
Recommendations: Improved Economic GDP, Social Justice, Respect for Human Rights, Increased participation in Governance

See action plan for milestone activities

IRM Midterm Status Summary

14. Empower women, young people, persons with disabilities, and marginalized groups

Main Objective

“1. Ensure inclusion, participation and representation of women, young people, older persons, persons with disabilities, and marginalized groups in the entire governance processes.

  1. Effective implementation of legal and policy frameworks to benefit women, young people, older persons, persons with disabilities, and marginalized groups.
  2. Ensure proper implementation of affirmative action and laws for women, young people, older persons, persons with disabilities, and other marginalized groups.
  3. Increase access & control over social, economic and political assets and resources for women, young people, older persons, persons with disabilities, and marginalized groups.
  4. Provide an enabling environment in all MDAs to encourage full women participation in the governance and decision-making process for example crèche, nurseries, etc.”

Milestones

Drive gender-mainstreaming through deepening policy and legislative instruments

1.The Ministry of Women Affairs/ / Humanitarian & Disaster Management/Social Development and Federal Ministry of Works and Housing to ensure a new Public building designed and constructed with the necessary accessibility aids such as ramps, elevators (where necessary) and any other facility easily accessible to persons with disabilities.

  1. Identify existing public buildings that are not accessible for Persons with disabilities.
  2. Modify existing public buildings that are not accessible for persons with disabilities with the necessary accessibility aids such as ramps, elevators (where necessary)
  3. The Ministry of Women Affairs/ Humanitarian & Disaster Management/Social Development and other relevant MDAs to ensure affirmative action of 35% representation and active participation of Women in governance is implemented at the Federal and at least a third of the states and integrated within the Federal Character Principle.
  4. Ensure budget allocation and release for at least one national shelter/temporary home for women, girls/children survivors of gender-based violence established in each of the six geopolitical zones of the country.

All MDAs should design and implement a gender-friendly budget process that encourages inclusiveness

  1. Train and Support vulnerable women and young people across the country and develop effective programmes around governance.
  2. CSOs to monitor effective inclusion of interest of women, young persons with disabilities and other marginalized groups in all government programs.
  3. CSOs to advocate passage of the Gender Equality Bill

Editorial Note: For the complete text of this commitment, please see Nigeria’s action plan at https://www.opengovpartnership.org/documents/nigeria-action-plan-2019-2021/

Commitment Analysis

This commitment seeks to enhance inclusion of vulnerable communities and empowerment of women in governance processes, which are both policy areas in Nigeria Vision 20: 2020. [162]

This commitment includes eight milestones. For public buildings, activities seek to modify and build infrastructure to ensure accessibility for people with disabilities. The commitment seeks to encourage female and youth participation in decision-making processes by facilitating training to develop governance programs and CSO monitoring of government programs’ inclusion of vulnerable communities. In terms of legislation, activities aim to ensure passage of the Gender Equality Bill and to improve implementation of the Girl Child Rights Act and Persons with Disability Act. The commitment intends to modify the Federal Character Principle to ensure affirmative action of 35% of representation of women in government positions, [163] targeting the Ministry of Women Affairs, the Ministry of Niger Delta Affairs, the Ministry of Education, the Ministry of Health, relevant National Assembly Committees, the National Oil Spill Detection and Response Agency (NOSDRA), and the Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation (NNPC). [164]

This commitment is relevant to the OGP value of civic participation, as it seeks to ensure implementation and review of legislation to encourage engagement and inclusion of vulnerable populations in governance processes. If implemented fully, this commitment could lead to a potentially moderate impact on ensuring inclusion of women, youth, and people with disabilities in these processes.

Under this commitment, activities to improve the accessibility of government offices could have an important impact for the 25 million people in Nigeria who are disabled (15% of the population). This population suffers from discrimination and lack of access to essential services like housing, health, and education. [165] The  Discrimination Against Persons with Disabilities (Prohibition) Act signed in 2018, after18 years of being tabled at the National Assembly, stipulates sanctions against discrimination due to disability and gives government agencies five years to ensure that public facilities are accessible. [166] However, many government offices continue to lack relevant assistive technology, accessible routes, curb ramps, parking and passenger loading zones, elevators, and restroom accommodations. [167]

The commitment’s activities to further gender equality could help increase women’s representation in governance. With an average of 33% female MDA employees in 2016, [168] underrepresentation of women has produced policy making that does not account for women’s priorities. [169] The 2006 National Gender Policy and 2010 Gender and Equal Opportunities Bill (GEOB) called for affirmative action to increase women’s participation in politics. [170] However, the bill was not passed. If passed, the Gender Equality Bill would require all agencies to eliminate discrimination in public and political life, and MDAs would be mandated to allocate a minimum of 35% of positions to women, [171] also supported by the commitment’s activity to modify the Federal Character Principle. The Federal Character Principle seeks to guarantee balanced representation of citizens from all states, regions, and ethnic groups in government agencies but does not currently incorporate gender. The milestone on gender budgeting could also have a positive impact given that government agencies have not previously adopted effective gender budgeting at the national, regional, and local level. [172] However, this activity lacks indicators in the action plan.

Although CSOs have worked to improve women’s access to governance for the past 20 years, their impact is largely perceived to have had limited influence on gender policy. [173] Overall, the commitment does not address some critical barriers for women’s participation, such as a culture shift among citizens, policy makers, and the public in general. Additionally, the commitment does not include measures that could change the nomination process for women in political parties or provide access to campaign financing. [174]

These issues also apply to the commitment’s impact on youth. Although the commitment seeks to provide training on political participation, it does not tackle the lack of financing or reforms to parties’ internal practices. Young people ages 18 to 29 constitute 67% of registered voters, and the 2018 Not Too Young To Run Act provides the opportunity to run for political office, adopted by 25 out of 36 states. [175] Nonetheless, youth make up only 1% of elected officials. [176] Youth are prevented from running for office by the high cost of nomination [177] and anti-democratic practices within political parties [178] along with a lack of prior training, knowledge, experience, and leadership in politics. [179]

To accomplish meaningful improvements in the participation of youth, women, and people with disabilities, the government could consider the following:

  • Legislation to remove financing obstacles for women and youth running for political positions and to improve parties’ internal mechanisms for selecting nominees. Efforts to strengthen youth coalitions could improve their capacity to network.
  • To address the needs of people with disabilities, it would be beneficial to ensure local-level awareness of anti-discrimination legislation and to take measures to improve access to job opportunities and essential services, such as health and education.

Overall, measures need to be taken to ensure proper and effective implementation of the three laws this commitment addresses.

[162] (Draft) Nigeria Vision 20:2020. Abridged Version. Federal Government of Nigeria, 10 December 2010, in https://www.nigerianstat.gov.ng/pdfuploads/Abridged_Version_of_Nigeria%20Vision%202020.pdf, p.10.
[163] “Nigeria 2019-2021 National Action Plan,” Open Government Partnership, https://www.opengovpartnership.org/documents/nigeria-action-plan-2019-2021/.
[164] Emem J. Okon (Kebetkache Women Development & Resource Centre), email correspondence with IRM, 9 July 2020.
[165] Anietie Ewang, “Nigeria Passes Disability Rights Law . Offers Hope of Inclusion, Improved Access,” Human Rights Watch, 25 January 2019, in https://www.hrw.org/news/2019/01/25/nigeria-passes-disability-rights-law
[166] Anietie Ewang, “Nigeria Passes Disability Rights Law . Offers Hope of Inclusion, Improved Access,”  Human Rights Watch, 25 January 2019, in https://www.hrw.org/news/2019/01/25/nigeria-passes-disability-rights-law ; Queen Esther Iroanusi, “Ten things to know about Nigeria’s new disability law”, Premium Times, 24 January 2019, in https://www.premiumtimesng.com/news/headlines/307494-ten-things-to-know-about-nigerias-new-disability-law.html.
[167] Odeh Friday (Accountability Lab), email correspondence with IRM, 8 July 2020.
[168] “2018 Statistical Report on Women and Men in Nigeria,” National Bureau of Statistics, May 2019.
[169] “Policy Brief 15. Inter-Regional Inequality Facility. Affirmative Action. Nigeria,” ODI, February 2006, in https://www.odi.org/sites/odi.org.uk/files/odi-assets/publications-opinion-files/4082.pdf, p.3.  Ugwuegede Patience Nwabunkeonye, Challenges to Women Active Participation in Politics in Nigeria, Horizon Research Publishing, 2014, in http://www.hrpub.org/download/20141001/SA4-19690095.pdf
[170] Linus Unah , “The battle to create more space for women in Nigeria’s politics,”  TRT World , 14 February 2019, in https://www.trtworld.com/magazine/the-battle-to-create-more-space-for-women-in-nigeria-s-politics-24175
[171]  Titilope Fadate, “International women’s day and Nigeria’s Gender Equality Bill,” Order Paper, in https://www.orderpaper.ng/international-womens-day-and-nigerias-gender-equality-bill/
[172] MM Adeyeye, CAO Akinbami, AS Momodu, “Adapting gender budgeting support framework in Nigeria: Policy issues and options”, Vol 9 No 1 (2011), African Journals Online (AJOL), in https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/67460; Chijioke Nelson, Asst., “Nigeria and poor gender-based budgeting records,” The Guardian, 27 January 2020, in https://guardian.ng/business-services/nigeria-and-poor-gender-based-budgeting-records/
[173] Comfort Yemisi Afolabi, “The Invisibility of Women's Organizations in Decision Making Process and Governance in Nigeria” Centre for Gender and Development Studies, Ekiti State University, Ado Ekiti, Nigeria/ Frontiers in Sociology, 9 January 2019, in https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fsoc.2018.00040/full
[174] Emeka Okafor, Monica Ewomazino Akokuwebe, “Women and Leadership in Nigeria: Challenges and Prospects,” Developing Country Studies, IISTE, 2015, in https://www.researchgate.net/publication/292141382_Women_and_Leadership_in_Nigeria_Challenges_and_Prospects; Linus Unah , “The battle to create more space for women in Nigeria’s politics,”  TRT World , 14 February 2019, in https://www.trtworld.com/magazine/the-battle-to-create-more-space-for-women-in-nigeria-s-politics-24175; Funmilayo I. Agbaje, Ph.D, “Reflections on the Challenges Facing Women in Contemporary Nigeria Politics,” Journal of International Politics, Volume 1, Issue 1, 2019, PP. 32-38, in https://www.sryahwapublications.com/journal-of-international-politics/pdf/v1-i1/4.pdf.
[175] Ugo Aliogo , “Nigeria: Can the Not Too Young to Run Act Deepen Nigeria's Democracy?” AllAfrica/This Day, 4 October 2018, in https://allafrica.com/stories/201810040241.html
[176] Angela Ajodo-Adebanjoko, “Nigerian youths are too poor to run for political office,” LSE Blogs, 27 November 2019, in https://blogs.lse.ac.uk/africaatlse/2019/11/27/nigerian-youths-poor-political-office-activism/ 
[177] Ugo Aliogo , “Nigeria: Can the Not Too Young to Run Act Deepen Nigeria's Democracy?”, AllAfrica/This Day, 4 October 2018, in https://allafrica.com/stories/201810040241.html; Mucahid Durmaz, “Nigerian youth aim to eliminate the old order in 2019 elections,” TRT World, 20 November 2018, in https://www.trtworld.com/africa/nigerian-youth-aim-to-eliminate-the-old-order-in-2019-elections-21816; Angela Ajodo-Adebanjoko, “Nigerian youths are too poor to run for political office,” LSE Blogs, 27 November 2019, in https://blogs.lse.ac.uk/africaatlse/2019/11/27/nigerian-youths-poor-political-office-activism/.
[178] Kwasi Gyamfi Asiedu, “Nigeria’s president, 75, has reduced the minimum age for presidential aspirants to 35,” 31 May 2018, Quartz Africa, in https://qz.com/africa/1292513/nigerias-president-75-is-about-to-reduce-the-minimum-age-for-presidential-aspirants-to-35/
[179] Henry Udemeh, Grassroots Development Support and Rural Enlightenment Initiative (GDEV), Nigeria, “2018 Rerimagining Democracy. Age qualifications to hold political office: a civil society experience from Nigeria,” CIVICUS, in https://www.civicus.org/index.php/re-imagining-democracy/stories-from-the-frontlines/3365-age-qualifications-to-hold-political-office-a-civil-society-experience-from-nigeria

Commitments

  1. Participatory Budgeting

    NG0015, 2019, Anti-Corruption

  2. Implement Open Contracting and the Open Contracting Data Standard

    NG0016, 2019, Access to Information

  3. Transparent Tax Revenue Reporting

    NG0017, 2019, Legislation & Regulation

  4. Open Contracting and Licensing in Extractives

    NG0018, 2019, Access to Information

  5. Implement EITI Standard

    NG0019, 2019, Anti-Corruption

  6. Establish Beneficial Ownership Registry

    NG0020, 2019, Access to Information

  7. Strengthen Asset Recovery Legislation

    NG0021, 2019, Anti-Corruption

  8. Implement National Anti-Corruption Strategy

    NG0022, 2019, Anti-Corruption

  9. Improve Compliance with Freedom of Information Act with Focus on Records Management

    NG0023, 2019, Access to Information

  10. Improved Compliance with Mandatory Publication Provisions Requirement (FOIA)

    NG0024, 2019, Access to Information

  11. Implement Permanent Dialogue Mechanism

    NG0025, 2019, Dispute Resolution & Legal Assistance

  12. Aggregate Citizens' Feedback on Programs

    NG0026, 2019, E-Government

  13. Freedom of Association, Assembly, and Expression

    NG0027, 2019, Civic Space

  14. Enhance Participation of the Vulnerable

    NG0028, 2019, Capacity Building

  15. Implement New Computer Program in 6 Government Ministries to Improve Service Delivery

    NG0029, 2019, Capacity Building

  16. Legal Instrument to Strengthen SERVICOM

    NG0030, 2019, Legislation & Regulation

  17. Citizen Participation in Budget Cycle

    NG0001, 2017, Access to Information

  18. Open Contracting

    NG0002, 2017, Access to Information

  19. Extractive Sector Transparency

    NG0003, 2017, Access to Information

  20. Tax Reporting Standards

    NG0004, 2017, Fiscal Openness

  21. World Bank Doing Business Index

    NG0005, 2017, Infrastructure & Transport

  22. Beneficial Ownership Register

    NG0006, 2017, Anti-Corruption

  23. Anti-Corruption Informationi Sharing

    NG0007, 2017, Anti-Corruption

  24. Asset Recovery Legislation

    NG0008, 2017, Capacity Building

  25. Anti-Corruption Activity Coordination

    NG0009, 2017, Anti-Corruption

  26. FOIA Compliance for Annual Reporting

    NG0010, 2017, Access to Information

  27. FOIA Compliance for Disclosure

    NG0011, 2017, Access to Information

  28. Permanent Dialogue Mechanism

    NG0012, 2017, Fiscal Openness

  29. Joint Governmnet-Civil Society Legislation Review

    NG0013, 2017, Fiscal Openness

  30. Technology-Based Citizens' Feedback

    NG0014, 2017, E-Government

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