Nigeria Results Report 2019-2022
- Action Plan: Nigeria Action Plan 2019-2022
- Dates Under Review: 2019-2022
- Report Publication Year: 2023
Under the second The Open Government Partnership (OGP) is a multi-stakeholder initiative focused on improving government transparency, ensuring opportunities for citizen participation in public matters, and strengthen... More (OGP) Action plans are at the core of a government’s participation in OGP. They are the product of a co-creation process in which government and civil society jointly develop commitments to open governmen..., Nigeria advanced anti-corruption efforts through greater According to OGP’s Articles of Governance, transparency occurs when “government-held information (including on activities and decisions) is open, comprehensive, timely, freely available to the pub... More of corporate Disclosing beneficial owners — those who ultimately control or profit from a business — is essential for combating corruption, stemming illicit financial flows, and fighting tax evasion. Technical... More, openness of national and state budgets, and improved management of recovered assets. However, a lack of ownership among implementing agencies contributed to low levels of Implementers must follow through on their commitments for them to achieve impact. For each commitment, OGP’s Independent Reporting Mechanism (IRM) evaluates the degree to which the activities outlin... More and few early open government results across most commitments. Nigeria’s OGP Subnational Program and Recognizing that investing in youth means investing in a better future, OGP participating governments are creating meaningful opportunities for youth to participate in government processes. Technical ... More Network are initiatives to watch in bringing OGP closer to the citizens.
Early results refer to concrete changes in government practice related to transparency, citizen participation, and/or public accountability as a result of a commitment’s implementation. OGP’s Inde... More
Under the second OGP action plan, Nigeria achieved major early results and won an OGP Impact Award in recognition of its efforts to establish a public beneficial ownership registry. Progress was also made in budget transparency, management of recovered assets, and implementation of the Freedom of Information Act. Commitments that achieved open government results benefited from high-level political support, a dedicated implementing agency, and a coalition of civil society and international partners.
These reforms align with the commitments identified as ‘noteworthy’ in Nigeria’s Independent Reporting Mechanism Design Report, the Government of Nigeria’s anti-corruption agenda, and the foundations laid for fiscal and corporate transparency in Nigeria’s first OGP action plan. Overall, fewer commitments in the second action plan achieved early results compared with in the first. This difference can largely be attributed to a lack of awareness of OGP commitments are promises for reform co-created by governments and civil society and submitted as part of an action plan. Commitments typically include a description of the problem, concrete action... obligations among implementing ministries, departments, and agencies (MDAs). Implementing MDA engagement often did not match efforts made from the highest levels of government and civil society.
There were low levels of implementation across the action plan. Eleven commitments were implemented to a limited extent or were not started at all. Consequently, 12 commitments did not have early results to report by the end of the implementation period. The action plan was implemented in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, which redirected government attention and resources as it sought to address the health crisis. Nigeria accepted the opportunity to extend the implementation period by one year and revised the action plan in 2021. Milestones added to the revised action plan were largely not completed. As with the first action plan, commitments that lacked an invested implementing MDA that had a sense of ownership of the reform made little progress, such as Commitments 12, 13, and 14. Most commitments have been included in Nigeria’s third action plan, which suggests that this challenge will persist unless OGP Nigeria generates government leadership for such commitments.
Participation and Co-Creation
OGP Nigeria was reorganized throughout the action plan period. The Ministry of Finance, Budget and National Planning took over as the OGP lead ministry from the Federal Ministry of To address barriers that prevent citizens from having their justice needs met, OGP participating governments are working to expand transparency, accountability, and inclusion into all systems of justi.... The 2019 general elections drew the government’s attention, thus civil society drove the Collaboration between government, civil society and other stakeholders (e.g., citizens, academics, private sector) is at the heart of the OGP process. Participating governments must ensure that a dive.... A new OGP National The Steering Committee is OGP’s executive decision-making body. Its role is to develop, promote and safeguard OGP’s values, principles and interests; establish OGP’s core ideas, policies, and ru... and Thematic Working Groups were started to reflect the second action plan’s implementing MDAs. In the middle of the implementation period, a new OGP national coordinator was appointed to lead the OGP Secretariat. Collaboration between government and civil society increased during implementation, and shared co-chair positions on the National Steering Committee and Thematic Working Groups supported this collaboration.
Nigeria continues to pioneer new forms of OGP engagement. OGP Secretariat and civil society partners have made a concerted effort to bring states into the OGP Subnational Program. A total of 25 states and the Federal Capital Territory of Abuja out of 36 states signed on by March 2023. In July 2022, OGP Nigeria and Accountability Lab established the OGP Youth Network to raise youth participation in national and state OGP processes. Challenges to OGP governance in Nigeria include funding for the OGP Secretariat, implementing MDAs’ consistent attendance to regular meetings, as well as monitoring and documentation of implementation progress. Nigeria did not have an OGP website or repository during the action plan cycle and was therefore acting contrary to OGP process. In 2023, the OGP Nigeria Secretariat has relaunched the website and a public Google Drive.
Implementation in Context
Nigeria’s second action plan was bookended by general elections in 2019 and 2023. The elections coincided with co-creation periods for the second and third action plans. The 2023 elections resulted in a change in administration, which will be responsible for implementing Nigeria’s third action plan. High-level visits took place between the OGP The OGP Support Unit is a small, permanent group of staff that work closely with the Steering Committee and the Independent Reporting Mechanism to advance the goals of the Open Government Partnership.... and the Government of Nigeria in 2019 and 2022, with OGP CEO Sanjay Pradhan meeting with President Muhammadu Buhari and OGP Minister for Finance, Budget, and National Planning Prince Clem Agba. The World Bank’s States Fiscal Transparency, Accountability and Sustainability project provided funds to OGP Nigeria to increase According to OGP’s Articles of Governance, citizen participation occurs when “governments seek to mobilize citizens to engage in public debate, provide input, and make contributions that lead to m... More in state budget processes. In addition, the World Bank With the support of development partners and working together with the World Bank, OGP established the Multi-Donor Trust Fund (MDTF) to support World Bank client countries and local entities that part... supported the government’s development of the forthcoming beneficial ownership register.
During the implementation period, the Government of Nigeria passed several significant pieces of legislation that promise to further open government. These include the 2020 Companies and Allied Matters Act and regulations, 2020 Police Act, 2021 Petroleum Industry Act, and 2022 Proceeds of Crime Act. An audit bill has also been drafted. The action plan coincided with both the COVID-19 pandemic and the #EndSARS movement. Pandemic restrictions on in-person gatherings inhibited citizen participation in OGP Nigeria meetings and in government decision-making processes, such as National Assembly public hearings. In October 2020, young Nigerians took to the streets in the #EndSARS movement to protest abuses perpetrated by the Special Anti-Robbery Squad (SARS). Security forces opened fire on protesters, which resulted in injury and death. The government disbanded SARS. However, Nigerians continue to express concerns around accountability for the government’s excessive use of force, police brutality, and protections for the right to peaceful protest, assembly, and speech. The Government of Nigeria extended and revised the action plan in 2021 to include COVID-19 spending transparency and police-citizen relations activities.
 OGP Nigeria website: https://ogpnigeria.gov.ng/; OGP Nigeria Google Drive: https://drive.google.com/drive/folders/1Wt_JCCqJgMlotNHmubU2ViCZBjwlA19x; OGP Nigeria Twitter: https://twitter.com/ogpnigeria?lang=en
 Human Rights Watch, “Nigeria: A Year On, No Justice for #EndsSARS Crackdown,” 19 October 2021, https://rb.gy/4ut3vk; “Freedom in the World 2022: Nigeria,” Freedom House website, accessed May 9, 2021, https://rb.gy/c31zxs.