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United States

Access to Educational Resources (US0055)

Overview

At-a-Glance

Action Plan: United States Action Plan 2015-2017

Action Plan Cycle: 2015

Status: Inactive

Institutions

Lead Institution: NA

Support Institution(s): NA

Policy Areas

Open Data

IRM Review

IRM Report: United States End-of-Term IRM Report 2015-2017, United States Mid-Term Report 2015-2017

Starred: No

Early Results: Major Major

Design i

Verifiable: Yes

Relevant to OGP Values: Access to Information Technology

Potential Impact:

Implementation i

Completion:

Description

Open educational resources are an investment in sustainable human development; they have the potential to increase access to high-quality education and reduce the cost of educational opportunities around the world. Open educational resources can expand access to key educational materials, enabling the domestic and international communities to attain skills and more easily access meaningful learning opportunities. The United States has worked collaboratively with domestic and international civil society stakeholders to encourage open education initiatives. Building on that momentum, the United States will openly license more Federal grant- supported education materials and resources, making them widely and freely available. In addition to convening stakeholders to encourage further open education efforts, the United States will publish best practices and tools for agencies interested in developing grant-supported open licensing projects, detailing how they can integrate open licensing into projects from technical and legal perspectives.

IRM Midterm Status Summary

IRM End of Term Status Summary

Commitment 3. Expand Access to Educational Resources

Commitment Text:

Expand Access to Educational Resources through Open Licensing and Technology

Open educational resources are an investment in sustainable human development; they have the potential to increase access to high-quality education and reduce the cost of educational opportunities around the world. Open educational resources can expand access to key educational materials, enabling the domestic and international communities to attain skills and more easily access meaningful learning opportunities. The United States has worked collaboratively with domestic and international civil society stakeholders to encourage open education initiatives. Building on that momentum, the United States will openly license more Federal grant- supported education materials and resources, making them widely and freely available. In addition to convening stakeholders to encourage further open education efforts, the United States will publish best practices and tools for agencies interested in developing grant-supported open licensing projects, detailing how they can integrate open licensing into projects from technical and legal perspectives.

Responsible Institutions: Department of Education, Department of State, Institute of Museum and Library Services (IMLS), and Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP)

Supporting Institutions: All Federal agencies, civil society organizations

Start Date: Not Specified End Date: Not Specified

Commitment Aim

This commitment aimed to leverage open educational resources to broaden access to high-quality education and reduce its cost. The commitment sought to do so in three ways. It would openly license educational materials that are funded by federal grants, convene stakeholders to advance open education initiatives, and publish best practices and tools on how to incorporate open licensing into educational projects from technical and legal perspectives for interested agencies.

Status

Midterm: Limited

The government made limited progress on this commitment by the midterm. In late October 2015, the Department of Education launched the #GoOpen campaign[1] to encourage educators and states to broaden the availability of open educational resources. The department also proposed a regulation[2] that would mandate open licensing for all grant-funded, copyrightable intellectual property.

The government also convened civil society stakeholders to help develop the Federal Playbook on Open Licensing. The playbook would provide guidance on developing open educational resources for government agencies and institutional users.[3] The government completed the playbook as of 31 December 2016. However, it had not yet received implementation approval from a working group of the federal advisory committee, and the playbook had not been publicly released. Despite this progress, various aspects of the commitment remained incomplete at the midterm. The government acknowledged the limited progress in its midterm self-assessment report.[4]

End of Term: Complete

By the end of term, the government completed this commitment.

On 17 January 2017, the Department of Education announced the publication of the final regulation on open licensing requirements for competitive grant programs. The announcement came in a blog post written by the director of the Office of Educational Technology. It was published on the Department of Education’s Homeroom blog[5] and on Medium.com.[6] Subject to certain exceptions, the regulation requires that recipients of competitive grant funds awarded by the Department of Education openly license copyrightable grant deliverables that were produced using those funds.[7] The final regulation requires that the public be able to freely use and reuse deliverables created under these programs. The regulation applies this same requirement to grant deliverables and “program support materials” that are necessary to the use or reuse of those deliverables. Under the final regulation, grant recipients (as well as subgrantees) must also develop a dissemination plan, helping to broaden access to the deliverables they produce.[8] Per a statement on the website of the Office of Educational Technology, the final regulation was made effective on 22 May 2017 and will be fully implemented in fiscal year (FY) 2018.[9]

The #GoOpen campaign continued to progress post-midterm, with the release of a District Launch Packet in March 2017. The packet is intended to serve as a roadmap for districts that aim to become #GoOpen Districts by systematically adopting openly licensed educational materials.[10] More specifically, #GoOpen Launch Districts are required to “identify a #GoOpen district-level team that will apply best practices such as those described in [the] #GoOpen District Launch Packet to develop a strategy for the implementation of openly licensed educational resources and a #GoOpen implementation team to execute the strategy; replace at least one textbook with openly licensed educational resources in the next 12 months; [and] document and share their #GoOpen implementation process and experiences so others can learn from them.”[11] Another category of #GoOpen Districts—Ambassador Districts—mentor Launch Districts. They also implement their own plans for systemically adopting open educational resources in a scalable, sustainable manner. In addition, Ambassador Districts share their experiences with other districts.[12]

Per the Office of Educational Technology, as of September 2017, there were 88 #GoOpen Launch Districts, and 22 #GoOpen Ambassador Districts.[13] As of this same date, the Department of Education had also recognized 20 #GoOpen states. These states have committed to support school districts and educators in their systematic adoption of open educational materials.[14] More specifically, #GoOpen states commit to do the following:

  • Adopt/implement a statewide technology strategy that includes the use of openly licensed resources as a central component,
  • Develop and maintain a statewide repository solution for openly licensed resources,
  • Develop the technical capability to publish open educational resources to the Learning Registry,
  • Participate in a community of practice with other #GoOpen states and districts to share learning resources and professional development resources, and
  • Create a webpage to share the commitment to #GoOpen and document the state’s progress.

Slightly beyond the close of the end-of-term reporting period, regional #GoOpen summits were scheduled to be held on 1 August 2017 in Virginia, and on 30 August 2017 in Indiana.[15] The scheduling of the summits highlights the ongoing nature of this initiative.

Lastly, the State Department officially released the Federal Playbook on Open Licensing in January 2017.[16] The playbook defines openly licensed resources as “works with licenses permitting free access, reuse, and redistribution . . . includ[ing] teaching and learning materials, research, data, and software.”[17] The playbook contains nine “plays” (or suggestions) that are intended to assistfederal grants managers interested in exploring or using openly licensed resources as a component of their programs.”[18] Each play includes a step-by-step implementation checklist, a list of key questions to consider, and case examples.

In light of this progress, the IRM researcher has assessed this commitment to be complete.

Did It Open Government?

Access to Information: Major

This commitment has substantially opened government with respect to access to information.

At the end of term, the #GoOpen campaign represents the clearest example of a change in government practice that has enhanced public access to educational information. As of September 2017, the #GoOpen campaign had grown considerably. As of that month, there were 88 #GoOpen Districts, 22 #GoOpen Ambassador Districts, and 20 #GoOpen states, each of which was releasing and utilizing open educational resources. The Department of Education’s Office of Educational Technology published a series of 18 “stories” via blog posts on its website. These stories describe how various educational institutions, districts, and systems have begun utilizing open educational resources linked to the #GoOpen initiative.[19]

In one notable example, Oklahoma’s Broken Arrow Public Schools acted to mitigate the impending impact of a USD $7.3 million budget cut for the 2016–2017 school year by turning to openly licensed educational resources. Under the #GoOpen program, a team comprised of over 200 Broken Arrow teachers supported the transition to open resources. This effort culminated in the addition of six openly licensed courses in fall 2016. During the 2017–2018 school year, the team intends to release additional open education curricula covering English/language arts and math for K–5 students.[20]

This notable shift speaks to the potential that the #GoOpen initiative holds for schools seeking to benefit from open educational resources. According to the Census Bureau, in 2012 (the most recent year for which data are available), there were more than 14,000 public school districts in the United States.[21] The #GoOpen program had designated 110 Launch and Ambassador districts at the time of writing. However, total number of US public school districts highlights the potential reach of the initiative to facilitate uptake of open educational resources going forward.

While the other aspects of the commitment have not yet contributed to changes in government openness, they have the potential to in the future. The final regulation on open licensing requirements, while not yet in force, could substantially further the availability of open educational resources. In FY2017, the Department of Education’s budget included $69.4 billion in discretionary funding.[22] The text of the final regulation noted that competitive grant programs generally comprise roughly 10 percent of that amount, around $7 billion.[23] Though not yet finalized, the total budget is estimated by the Department of Education to be $59 billion for FY2018.[24] By this estimate, roughly $6 billion will be allocated to competitive grant programs during that time frame. The amount constitutes a relatively small percentage of the Department of Education’s overall budget. However, the competitive grant funding in absolute terms highlights the potential for a substantial increase in public access to educational materials, which would henceforth be openly available for reuse.

The Federal Playbook on Open Licensing could similarly open government. The playbook would provide a step-by-step roadmap for federal grant managers. Using it, they could incorporate the production of open resources (including open educational resources) into their grant-making programs. Information on the number of federal agencies using the playbook was not publicly available at the time of writing. However, the playbook could facilitate the voluntary incorporation of open educational resources into grant-making programs across the federal government.

Carried Forward?

At the time of writing, the US government had not yet published its fourth action plan. Aside from implementing the final regulation on open licensing requirements, there is no need to include this commitment in the next action plan. The government has completed progress on all other fronts. Nonetheless, moving forward, the US government could further invest in organizing and maintaining the open educational resources produced through the #GoOpen campaign. Whether using repositories like the Learning Registry or Amazon Inspire,[25] the government will have to address the ongoing challenge of ensuring the high quality and usefulness of the newly available resources.[26]


[1] “U.S. Department of Education Launches Campaign to Encourage Schools to #GoOpen with Educational Resources,” US Department of Education, 29 October 2015, https://www.ed.gov/news/press-releases/us-department-education-launches-campaign-encourage-schools-goopen-educational-resources, consulted 2 October 2017.

[2] Ibid.

[3] For background information, see the website for the 13th annual Open Education Conference held in Richmond, Virginia, 2-4 November 2016, available at https://openeducation2016.sched.com/event/7lnD/promoting-government-use-of-oer-the-federal-open-licensing-playbook, consulted 2 October 2017.

[4] United States of America, Midterm Self-Assessment Report for the Open Government Partnership: Third Open Government National Action Plan, 2015-2017, September 2016, 6, https://www.opengovpartnership.org/wp-content/uploads/2001/01/USA_NAP3_self-assessment-report_20160916.pdf, consulted 2 October 2017.

[5] Joseph South, “U.S. Department of Education Announces Final Regulation on Open Licensing Requirement for Competitive Grant Programs,” 17 January 2017, Homeroom, US Department of Education, https://blog.ed.gov/2017/01/u-s-department-education-announces-final-regulation-open-licensing-requirement-competitive-grant-programs/, consulted 9 September 2017. A copy of the final regulation is available at https://tech.ed.gov/files/2017/01/ED-Open-Licensing-Rule-1.11.17-Public.pdf, Consulted 9 September 2017.

[6] Joseph South, “U.S. Department of Education Announces Final Regulation on Open Licensing Requirement for Competitive Grant Programs,” Medium.com, 17 January 2017, https://medium.com/@OfficeofEdTech/u-s-department-of-education-announces-final-regulation-on-open-licensing-requirement-for-60a127333997, consulted 9 September 2017.

[7] Joseph South, “U.S. Department of Education Announces Final Regulation on Open Licensing Requirement for Competitive Grant Programs,” Homeroom, US Department of Education, 17 January 2017, https://blog.ed.gov/2017/01/u-s-department-education-announces-final-regulation-open-licensing-requirement-competitive-grant-programs/, consulted 9 September 2017.

[8] Ibid.

[9] Department of Education Office of Educational Technology, https://tech.ed.gov/open/, consulted 9 September 2017.

[10] “#GoOpen District Launch Packet,” US Department of Education, Office of Educational Technology, March 2017, https://tech.ed.gov/open/districts/launch/, consulted 9 September 2017. Two earlier versions of the packet were published in June 2013 (version 1.1) and January 2017 (version 2.1). See front matter of the packet, available at https://tech.ed.gov/files/2017/03/GoOpen-District-Launch-Packet-2017-V-1.3.pdf, consulted 9 September 2017.

[11] Ibid., page 5, consulted 9 September 2017.

[12] Ibid., pages 5-6, consulted 9 September 2017.

[13] “#GoOpen Districts,” US Department of Education, Office of Educational Technology, https://tech.ed.gov/open/districts/, consulted 9 September 2017.

[14] “U.S. Department of Education Recognizes 14 States and 40 Districts Committing to #GoOpen with Educational Resources,” US Department of Education, 26 February 2016, https://www.ed.gov/news/press-releases/us-department-education-recognizes-13-states-and-40-districts-committing-goopen-educational-resources, consulted 9 September 2017. See current list of #GoOpen states at “#GoOpen States,” US Department of Education, Office of Educational Technology, https://tech.ed.gov/open/states/, consulted 9 September 2017.

[15] “#GoOpen Districts,” US Department of Education, Office of Educational Technology, https://tech.ed.gov/open/districts/, consulted 9 September 2017.

[16] Cable Green, “State Department Publishes Open Licensing ‘Playbook’ for Federal Agencies,” Creative Commons Blog, 20 January 2017, https://creativecommons.org/2017/01/20/state-department-publishes-open-licensing-playbook-federal-agencies/, consulted 9 September 2017. The Federal Playbook on Open Licensing is available for download via the website of the US Department of State’s Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs at https://eca.state.gov/files/bureau/open_licensing_playbook_final.pdf, consulted 9 September 2017.

[17] US Department of State. Federal Open Licensing Playbook, January 2017, 7, https://eca.state.gov/files/bureau/open_licensing_playbook_final.pdf, consulted 9 September 2017.

[18] Ibid.

[19] “#Stories of EdTech Innovation,” US Department of Education, Office of Educational Technology, https://tech.ed.gov/stories/story_tag/goopen/, consulted 9 September 2017.

[20] “Broken Arrow Public Schools: Using OER to Improve Quality and Tackle Challenges,” US Department of Education, Office of Educational Technology, https://tech.ed.gov/stories/brokenarrow/?back=%2Fstories%2Fstory_tag%2Fgoopen%2F, consulted 9 September 2017.

[21] “School Districts,” US Census Bureau, https://www.census.gov/did/www/schooldistricts/, consulted 27 September 207.

[22] “Budget Factsheet for FY2016,” US Department of Education, https://www2.ed.gov/about/overview/budget/budget16/budget-factsheet.pdf, consulted 27 September 2017.

[23] “Final Regulation on Open Licensing Requirement for Competitive Grant Programs,” US Department of Education, 4, https://tech.ed.gov/files/2017/01/ED-Open-Licensing-Rule-1.11.17-Public.pdf, consulted 9 September 2017.

[24] “Budget Factsheet for FY2018,” US Department of Education, https://www2.ed.gov/about/overview/budget/budget18/budget-factsheet.pdf, consulted 27 September 2017.

[25] “Get Inspired to #GoOpen,” Getting Smart, 27 June 2016, http://www.gettingsmart.com/2016/06/amazon-gets-inspired-to-goopen/.

[26] Randy Wilhelm, “#GoOpen: So You’ve Embraced OER? Now What?” EdScoop, 8 November 2016, http://edscoop.com/go-open-so-youve-embraced-oer-now-what.


United States's Commitments

  1. Federal Data Strategy

    US0105, 2019, E-Government

  2. Grants Accountability

    US0106, 2019, E-Government

  3. Public Access to Federally Funded Research

    US0107, 2019, E-Government

  4. Workforce Data Standards

    US0108, 2019, E-Government

  5. Chief Data Officers

    US0109, 2019, Capacity Building

  6. Open Data for Public Health

    US0110, 2019, E-Government

  7. Enterprise Objective

    US0111, 2019, Capacity Building

  8. Developing Future Action Plans

    US0112, 2019, OGP

  9. Reconstitution of the USA.gov

    US0053, 2015, E-Government

  10. Accessibility of Government Information Online

    US0054, 2015, Marginalized Communities

  11. Access to Educational Resources

    US0055, 2015, Open Data

  12. Public Listing of Every Address in the US

    US0056, 2015, Open Data

  13. Informed Decisions About Higher Education.

    US0057, 2015, Open Data

  14. New Authentication Tools to Protect Individual Privacy and Ensure That Personal Records Go Only to the Intended Recipients.

    US0058, 2015, Public Service Delivery

  15. Transparency of Open311

    US0059, 2015, E-Government

  16. Support Medicine Research Throught Opening up Relevant Data of the Field

    US0060, 2015, Health

  17. Access to Workforce Data

    US0061, 2015, Open Data

  18. Using Evidence and Concrete Data to Improve Public Service Delivery

    US0062, 2015, Capacity Building

  19. Expand Use of the Federal Infrastructure Permitting Dashboard

    US0063, 2015,

  20. Consolidation of Import and Export Systems

    US0064, 2015, E-Government

  21. Improving Government Records

    US0065, 2015, Open Data

  22. Starred commitment Ammendments to FOIA

    US0066, 2015, Open Data

  23. Streamline the Declassification Process

    US0067, 2015, Capacity Building

  24. Implement the Controlled Unclassified Information Program

    US0068, 2015, Open Data

  25. Transparency of Privacy Programs and Practices

    US0069, 2015, Capacity Building

  26. Transparency of Federal Use of Investigative Technologies

    US0070, 2015, E-Government

  27. Increase Transparency of the Intelligence Community

    US0071, 2015, Capacity Building

  28. Open Science Through Open Data

    US0072, 2015, Open Data

  29. Open Data Portal

    US0073, 2015, E-Government

  30. Increase Transparency of Trade Policy and Negotiations

    US0074, 2015, E-Government

  31. Develop a Machine Readable Government Organizational Chart

    US0075, 2015, E-Government

  32. Improving Public Participation

    US0076, 2015, Public Participation

  33. Expand Public Participation in the Development of Regulations

    US0077, 2015, Public Participation

  34. Civic Engagement in Decision-Making Processes

    US0078, 2015, Public Participation

  35. Open Mapping

    US0079, 2015, E-Government

  36. Tracking OGP Implementation

    US0080, 2015, OGP

  37. Strengthening Whistleblower Protection

    US0081, 2015, Capacity Building

  38. Transparency of Legal Entities

    US0082, 2015, Beneficial Ownership

  39. Extractive Industries Transparency

    US0083, 2015, Extractive Industries

  40. Spending Transparency

    US0084, 2015, E-Government

  41. Enhance the Use of U.S. Foreign Assistance Information

    US0085, 2015, Aid

  42. Participatory Budgets and Responsive Spending

    US0086, 2015, Participation in Budget Processes

  43. Expand Access to Justice to Promote Federal Programs

    US0087, 2015, E-Government

  44. Build Safer Communities with Police Open Data

    US0088, 2015, E-Government

  45. Open Federal Data to Benefit Local Communities

    US0089, 2015, E-Government

  46. Support the Municipal Data Network

    US0090, 2015, E-Government

  47. Foster Data Ecosystems

    US0091, 2015, Capacity Building

  48. Extend Digital, Data-Driven Government to Federal Government’S Support for Communities

    US0092, 2015, Capacity Building

  49. Promote Implementation of SDGs

    US0093, 2015, Open Data

  50. Starred commitment Promote Open Climate Data

    US0094, 2015, E-Government

  51. Air Quality Data Available

    US0095, 2015, E-Government

  52. Promote Food Security and Data Sharing for Agriculture and Nutrition

    US0096, 2015, Capacity Building

  53. Promote Data Sharing About Global Preparedness for Epidemic Threats

    US0097, 2015, Capacity Building

  54. Promote Global Interconnectivity

    US0098, 2015, Aid

  55. Open Contracting

    US0099, 2015, Capacity Building

  56. Harness the Data Revolution for Sustainable Development

    US0100, 2015, OGP

  57. Open Government to Support Global Sustainable Development

    US0101, 2015, Anti-Corruption Institutions

  58. Open Collaboration Onf the Arctic

    US0102, 2015, Environment and Climate

  59. Support Capacity Building for Extractives Transparency

    US0103, 2015, Capacity Building

  60. Support Responsible Investment and Business Practices for Companies

    US0104, 2015, Private Sector

  61. Improve Public Participation in Government

    US0027, 2013, Capacity Building

  62. Modernize Management of Government Records

    US0028, 2013, Records Management

  63. Modernize the Freedom of Information Act

    US0029, 2013, Capacity Building

  64. Transform the Security Classification System

    US0030, 2013, Records Management

  65. Implement the Controlled Unclassified Information Program

    US0031, 2013, Security

  66. Increase Transparency of Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Activities

    US0032, 2013, E-Government

  67. Make Privacy Compliance Information More Accessible

    US0033, 2013, E-Government

  68. Support and Improve Agency Implementation of Open Government Plans

    US0034, 2013, OGP

  69. Strengthen and Expand Whistleblower Protections for Government Personnel

    US0035, 2013, Capacity Building

  70. Increase Transparency of Legal Entities Formed in the United States

    US0036, 2013, Legislation & Regulation

  71. Starred commitment Implement the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative

    US0037, 2013, Environment and Climate

  72. Make Fossil Fuel Subsidies More Transparent

    US0038, 2013, Extractive Industries

  73. Starred commitment Increase Transparency in Spending

    US0039, 2013, Fiscal Transparency

  74. Increase Transparency of Foreign Assistance

    US0040, 2013, Aid

  75. Continue to Improve Performance.Gov

    US0041, 2013, E-Government

  76. Consolidate Import and Export Systems to Curb Corruption

    US0042, 2013, Private Sector

  77. Promote Public Participation in Community Spending Decisions

    US0043, 2013, Infrastructure & Transport

  78. Expand Visa Sanctions to Combat Corruption

    US0044, 2013, Anti-Corruption Institutions

  79. Further Expand Public Participation in the Development of Regulations

    US0045, 2013, Capacity Building

  80. Open Data to the Public

    US0046, 2013, E-Government

  81. Continue to Pilot Expert Networking Platforms

    US0047, 2013, Public Participation

  82. Reform Government Websites

    US0048, 2013, E-Government

  83. Promote Innovation Through Collaboration and Harness the Ingenuity of the American Public

    US0049, 2013, Capacity Building

  84. Promote Open Education to Increase Awareness and Engagement

    US0050, 2013, E-Government

  85. Deliver Government Services More Effectively Through Information Technology

    US0051, 2013, E-Government

  86. Increase Transparency in Spending

    US0052, 2013, E-Government

  87. Reform Records Management

    US0001, 2011, Records Management

  88. Lead a Multi-Agency Effort

    US0002, 2011, Capacity Building

  89. Monitor Agency Implementation of Plans

    US0003, 2011, OGP

  90. Provide Enforcement and Compliance Data Online

    US0004, 2011, Environment and Climate

  91. Advocate for Legislation Requiring Meaningful Disclosure

    US0005, 2011, Legislation & Regulation

  92. Apply Lessons from Recovery Act to Increate Spending Transparency

    US0006, 2011, Fiscal Transparency

  93. Government-Wide Reporting Requirements for Foreign Aid

    US0007, 2011, Aid

  94. Use Performanc.Gov to Improve Government Performance and Accountability

    US0008, 2011, Public Service Delivery

  95. Overhaul the Public Participation Interface on Regulations.Gov

    US0009, 2011, Legislation & Regulation

  96. Launch Expertnet

    US0010, 2011, E-Government

  97. Launch International Space Apps Competition

    US0011, 2011, E-Government

  98. Launch “We the People”

    US0012, 2011,

  99. Open Source “We the People”

    US0013, 2011,

  100. Develop Best Practices and Metrics for Public Participation

    US0014, 2011, Capacity Building

  101. Professionalize the FOIA Administration

    US0015, 2011, Right to Information

  102. Harness the Power of Technology

    US0016, 2011, Right to Information

  103. Advocate for Legislation on Whistleblower Protection

    US0017, 2011, E-Government

  104. Explore Executive Authority to Protect Whistleblowers

    US0018, 2011, Legislation & Regulation

  105. Implement the EITI

    US0019, 2011, Extractive Industries

  106. Partnership to Build on Recent Progress

    US0020, 2011, Extractive Industries

  107. Promote Data.Gov to Spur Innovation Through Open Sourcing

    US0021, 2011, Open Data

  108. Data.Gov: Foster Communities on Data.Gov

    US0022, 2011, Education

  109. Begin Online National Dialogue with the American Public

    US0023, 2011, Public Participation

  110. Update Government-Wide Policies for Websites

    US0024, 2011,

  111. Promote Smart Disclosure to Ensure Timely Release of Information

    US0025, 2011, Capacity Building

  112. Publish Guidelines on Scientific Data

    US0026, 2011, Capacity Building